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Full text of "California journal"


fttia jrowtia 



I 



Volume I 6 



San Francisco. California, Friday, January 20, 1933 



CALIFORNIA 
HISTORICAL EDITION 



FEATURING HISTORICAL EVENTS AND DEVELOPMENTS OF 
COUNTIES AND COMMUNITIES OF OUR GLORIOUS STATE. 



Number 3 




PUBLISHKD ANNUALLY BY THE 

CALIFORNIA JOURNAL, SAN FRANCISCO 

IN THE AMERICAN AND GERMAN LANGUAGES 





mm Mmnmu 



I 



Volume 16 



San Francisco, California. Friday, January 20, 1933 



Number 3 



DEDICATION 




CALIFORNIA, our beloved State of beauty, progress and pio- 
neerdom, we dedicate this Special Historical Edition of the Cali- 
foi-nia Joui'nal. 

In gathering the material this edition contains, we followed a 
two-fold purpose. To our fellow Californians we wanted to give 
^ valuable data and information to still further increase and aug- 
ment the just pride with which they look upon their home State, its romantic 
history and its glorious achievements. To those who are still living outside the 
boundaries of our State, we wanted to extend a most hearty invitation, based 
upon authentic facts and dependable statistics, to come to California see its 
many wonders, and experience with their own hearts and mmds the glory that 
lies "west of the Sierras." 

If we have succeeded in this two-fold purpose, we shall feel amply rewarded 
for our labors and effoi-ts. To our many readers and friends, however, we ear- 
nestly recommend to read this special Edition of the California Journal with 
more than ordinary diligence, to study it and to preserve it. It P^'ovides a mine 
of information on our beloved Golden State, its history and its opportunities, its 
resources, enterprises and personalities. 

If a large part of its contents has been printed in the English language, this 
was done in order to acquaint the largest possible number of presen or futu.e 
Californians with everything that is worth knowing about our beloved State. 

This is YOUR Edition, Fellow-Californians of the present and of the future, 
take it with gracious hands. 

THE PUBLISHERS. 



end m», be h„d ■" ^'jUJ'tS'. fMicctio«. 447 Mime Siretl . fon Frmcuc. 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 




Jahreskonvent der „Shriners" brachte 

Glanz und Optimismus nach 

San Francisco. 



INES der buntesten aber auch bedeutsamsten Ereignisse, die im 
Jahre 1932 in der ewig lebensfrohen Stadt San Francisco stattfan- 
den, war der grosse Nationalkonvent der "Shriners" oder — wie 

sich ihre Organisation im stolzen Bewusstsein ihrer altehi-würdi- 

gen Tradition nennt — des "Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the 
Mystic Shrine". 

Der Konvent fand am 26., 27. und 28. Juli in San Franciscos Mauern 
statt, war jedoch von weit mehr als nur öitlicher oder vombergehender 
Bedeutung. Shrine Tempel, deren Mitgliederzahl oftmals in die Tausende 
reicht, kamen aus so gut wie sämtlichen Teilen der Vereinigten Staaten, 
aber auch aus Canada, Mexico und anderen Ländern, um am Goldenen 
Tore ein imposantes Fest zu feiern und Zeugnis abzulegen von der bun- 
ten Pracht und dem leuchtenden Glanz ihres Ordens. 

Drei Tage lang weilten die willkoiiimenen Gäste in unserer Stadt, die 
auch bei dieser Gelegenheit wieder ihren Weltruf als *'The City that 
Knows How" im weitesten Sinne dieser Woite aufrecht erhielt. In erster 
Linie waren es natürlich die rund zwölftausend Mitglieder des hiesigen 
Islam Tempel, die den Konvent in umsichtiger und grosszügiger Weise 
vorbereitet hatten, um ihn sodann unter herzlichster Mitwirkung der ge- 
samten Einwohnerschaft in ebenso glänzender wie effektvoller Weise 
durchzuführen. 

Drei Tage lang gab es glanzvolle Paraden, Umzüge und Prozessio- 
nen der bunt und malerisch uniformierten Tempel, fröhliche Bälle, Ro- 
deo- und Sportveranstaltungen mannigfaltigster Ai-t und nicht zuletzt 
einen nächtlichen Fackelzug, an dem sich auch eine grosse Anzahl der 
bekanntesten und bemhmtesten amerikanischen Kinosterne aktiv und 
in persona beteiligten. 

Abgesehen von all dieser äusseren Pracht fehlte es dem grossen Na- 
ionalkonvent aber auch nicht an ökonomischer sowie an tieferer geistiger 
Bedeutung. Dass die auswärtigen Besucher der dreitägigen Veranstal- 
tung Hunderttausende von Dollars nach San Francisco brachten, ist eben- 
so bekannt, wie die Tatsache, dass durch den Geist, der sie alle beseelte, 
eine merkliche Bresche in Pessimismus und Depression geschlagen wur- 
de. Und selbst darüber hinaus ragt noch das der gesamten Shrine Or- 
ganisation zugrunde liegende Prinzip der Freundschaft, der Treue und 
des Wohltuns, die sie unter anderem veranlasst, in verschiedenen Tei- 
len des Landes und so auch in San Francisco mustergültig eingerichtete 
und nach modernsten Richtlinien geleitete Kindei'hospitäler und sonstige 
Wohlfahrtsinstitute zu unterhalten. 

Daran sind gewissermassen trotz allen äusseren Flitters und aller 
zeitweiligen Lustbarkeit der innei-e Kei'n und die wirkliche Seele de«i 
*'Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mvslic Siirino" enthalten 
und zu erkennen. Und aus diesem Grunde ist San Krancisco lu'soiulers 
stolz darauf, dass es im Jahre 1932 diese edlen Ritter und die vortreff 
liehe Organisation anlasslich ihres bedeutungsvollen Jahres-Konvents in 
seinen Mauern begi-ussen und während dreier herrlicher Festtage beher- 
bergen durfte. '^ 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



Governor Rolph Sends Greetings 

To California Journal Readers 



STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Governor's Office 

Sacramento 



To all Readers of this Special 
Edition of the California Journal: 



e R EETl N G 1 

As Chief Executive of the State of California it affords me 
much pleasure and I consider it a profound privilege to extend 
my sincere and hearty greetings to all readers of this very fine 
and interesting Special Historical Edition of the Cahforn.a 
Journal. 

H seems needless to say that to all those living outside of 
California, a most cordial invitation Is also extcndad to coma 
and visit lis and our glorious State by the softly roll.ng waves 
of the great Pacific. 

California knows no special croed and harbors no Intoloranc:;: 
all visitors, their families and friends may be assured of the 
entire State's whole-hearted cooperation in making their stay 
within our midst a pleasant and memorable one. 

Sincerely yours, 

JAMES ROLPH. JR., 

Governor of California. 




i 



lossaqe o( 
Col. 



Mr. Henry F. Budde. Publisher. California Journal. 
-147 Minna Street. San Francisco, California. 

Dear Mr. Budde: 

fornia Journal. , , 

With the Govornor-s compliments and every good wish, 

Very sincerely yours, 

WM. A. SMITH, 

Private Sacrstary. 



¥ 



CALIFORNIA 



jOURNALHBTO^^ALANNU^ 



*- iZ^^Tt.^^--^ 




An^i'lo }. Rossi, Ahyor oj San Francisco 





Mr. Henry F. Budde. Publisher. 

The Calilfornia Journal, 

447 Minna Street, 

San Francisco. California. 



D^ar Mr. Budde: — 



As Mayor of the City and County of San Francisco I wish 
to congratulate you and the "California Journal most highly 
on the publication of this special California Historical Ed.t.on. 

Your enterprise in the compilation of thi. fine example of 
the printers' craft, and the timely and informative articles 
herein, both in English and German, constitute a splendid ges- 
ture of friendliness and good will not only towards our own 
beloved city by the Golden Gate but also towards the entire 
State of California and the American people as a whole. 

It alto gives me great pleasure to send a hearty welcome 
through these hospitable columns to all delegates and visitor» 
to the many state and national conventions that will be held m 
San Francisco during 1933. It is my sincere wish «nd conviction 
that their visit to our shores will be happy and memorable. 

Vtry sincerely your«. 

ANSELO J. ROSSI. 

Mayor 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNa^AL 



Zauberland California 

Der Staat der Traeume^ die in Erfuellung gelmi 



California ist der zvveitgrössle der unter dem Sternenbanner ver- 
einigten Staaten von Nordamerika. Derselbe erstreckt sich durch 9^ Brei- 
tengrade an der Küste des Stillen Ozeans, hat eine Länge von ungefähr 
700 englischen Meilen und durchschnittlich eine Breite von 226 Meilen, wäh- 
rend die Küstenausdehnung 900 Meilen beträgt. Der Flächeninhalt d(.'s 
Staates ist 158,502 Quadratmeilen oder 100,992,640 Acker, von welchen über 
die Hälfte als kultivierbares Land bezeichnet werden kann. Die gegen- 
wärtige Bevölkerung wird auf 4,500,000 Einwohner geschätzt. 

Die geographisch, sowohl wie klimatisch ungemein günstige Lago 
Californieus und die dadurch bedingte wunderbare Fruchtbarkeit des Bodens 
spiegelt sich in der unerschöpfhchen Quelle des Wohlslandes seiner Be- 
wohner wieder, Acker-, Obst- und Gartenbau, Handel, Gewerbe und In- 
dustrie stehen in hoher Blüte. Californien ist eine einzige grosse Riviora. 
nur mit dem Unterschiede, dasfs Temperaturschwankungen hier bei weiten! 
nicht so gross und plötzlich auftreten, wie an den Gestaden des Mittel- 
meeres. 

Tier Zauber Califomiens 

Es gibt Länder und Städte, deren Namen in uns ganz besondere Bilder 
und Vorstellungen erwecken. So hat das Bild und die Vorstellung die sich 
die meisten von uns von Californien machen, immer noch etwas von dem 
verlockenden Goldglanz und der verführerischen Abenteureratmösphärt an 
sich, wie sie gelegentlich der ersten GoldaiifFindung im Jahre 1849 das vor- 
her kaum beachtete Land an der fernen Westküste über Nacht zum ver- 
heissungsvollen Mekka aller Glücksritter und Reichtumssucher der neuen 
Welt umwandelten. Von dem tiefen Goldgrund des Bildes, das uns nie vor 
Augen tritt, ohne die geheime Sehnsucht in uns zu erwecken, es einmal in 
Wirklichkeit zu schauen, heben sich im Gegensätze zu fast allen anderen 
amerikanischen Landschaftsbildern merkwürdige, romantische und maleri- 
sche Gestalten ab. Aus dem rauhen Lagerleben bunt zusammengewürfelter 
Goldgräber, wie es uns Bret Harte und Joaquin Miller in ihren Versen und 
Skizzen so lebenswahr und farbenprächtig schildern, tauchen wilde, trotzige, 
kernig-knorrige und doch wieder so wundersam weichherzige, hochsinnige 
Charaktere auf. Anders als in der breiten Ebene, als in den kultivierten 
Staaten des Ostens, wachsen sich hier zwischen abgelegenen, sonnenver- 
brannten Bergen und einsamen, dunklen Schluchten die Menschen aus. Ne- 
ben dem Golde, das aus dem verborgenen Geäder der Felsen gebrochen odor 
aus dem Sande der Flüsse gewaschen wird, leuchten inmitten einer gewal- 
tigen Urwaldwildnis und dor Verwilderung des Goldgräberlagers noch an- 
drrc, seltsam blitzende Goldköiner rauher Ritterlichkeit und versteckter 
Opferfreudigkeit, schamhafter Treue und heimlicher Grösse in der dunklen 
Tiefe der Menschennatur auf, wie wir sie im Mittelpunkt der Kultur nicht 
mehr zu finden gewohnt sind. Zwischen die .schilltMndc Goldromiintik dur 
Argonauten zeit aber schieben sich bliihendo ObsibaumplanlayL'n und grüne 
Rebenfelder. Handel, Gewerl)e und Industiie drücken dem Bilde einen mo- 
dernen Stempel auf, während fremde, farbensattc Blumen und üppige, 
schwellende Früchte ihm seine malerischen Konturen zu wahren suchen. 
Hinter allem aber schimmert das Stille Meer, gross und hlau, mit weissen, 
wehenden Segeln buntbeflaggter Schiffe aus aller Herren Länder. 

Ueber dieses Meer kamen sie dereinst gezogen in ihren hohen, seil- 
»am verachnürkelten, buntbemalten Fuhrzeugen, die ersten spanischen An- 
siedler, die diesem I^indc und wincn Häf(;n und Städten ihre schunen, wohl- 
t/Jnfmden Naiiif^n ifegeben haben, deren weicher I^uut noch heute wie ein 
melodificher Nachklanu aus einer fernen Zeit der Wunder und des Friedens 



G. E. ASHLEY 



C. H. ASHLEY 



LADY ATTENDANT 

Ashley & McMullen 

Funeral Directors 

Telephone SKyUne 8403 

GEARY AND SIXTH AVENUE 

San FrancJäco 



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J. FERRERA 



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CIQAKS, CIGARETTES, CANDIES 

Telephone OArfleld 9539 

45 POST STREET 

San Francisco 



Office Phone FRanklin 9077 

If no answer call iL\rket 2100 

Residence Phone LOckhaven 1147 

C. E. Voigt, M.D., Ph. D. 

CENTRAL MEDICAL BVILDING 

1195 BUSH STREET 



Hours 2-4 Daily. Monday and Friday 7-8 
Residence 136 Sloat Boulevard 



LESTER BALL 

The Oldest German Notary Public in 
San Francisco 

Testaments, Deeds, Bill of Sales and Power o( 
Attorney Prepared 

933 Market Street 

Phone: C.Arfleld 9166 



Patented 1931 



SLxe 5 X 10 



Price $3.00 $4.85 Installed 

American Illuminated 
House Number 

A Guide to Friends at Night 

Attractive- and Necessary Knalure for llie Home 
Manufactured by 

The 
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Phono MArkKt UM 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



durch den liprbm, harten Sprachrealisraus des Angelsachsen geht: Sanln 
Rosa, El Modrna, Alainoda. Sacramento. Palo Alto, Sausalito, San Francisco, 
San Diego. Los Gatos, EI Verano, Monte Vista, Santa Maria, San Luis Ohis- 
po .... Wie der verwehte Orgelton aus einem vorsunkonen Heiligtum fallt 
ein jeder dieser californischen Städtenamen durch das wirre Grosstadt- 
gewühl des modernen amerikanischen Lebens in unser Ohr. 

Wir blättern im Buche der call lorn ischcn Geschichte. Es zeigt nur 
wenige Seiten aber das darauf Verzeichnete trägt tiefe Farben. Es ist eine 
Geschichte der Eroberung ohne grosse blutige Sclilachten. Ein Goldschim- 
mer zieht sich durch diese Blatter. Wie die Kapitel aus einer alten Heiligen- 
legende lesen sich die ersten historischen Nachrichten über das Goldland 
am Stillen Ozean, über dessen immergrünen Myiten und Cypressen noch 
heute der gedämpfte, mystische, undcfinierliare Hauch einer patriarchali- 
schen Poesie liegt, wie er uns aus alten Zeiten entgegenweht und wie wir 
ihn in keinem anderen Staate der Union wiederfinden. Stolze Namen aus 
der Geschichte mittelalterlicher Seefahrer werden wach: Juan Rodriguez 
Cabrillo, Vizcaino, Francis Drake. — Sie und andere gehören zu den ersten 
Europäern, die an den Küsten von „Ixis Californias" Anker geworfen und 
sich um den Ruhm der Entdeckung streiten. Aus Mexiko kam durch die 
Wüste mit seinem kleinen Zuge von Mönchen und Soldaten der spanische 
Franziskanerpater „Junipero Serra", ein Organisator talent ersten Ranges 
gezogen. In seiner Apostelgestalt, die in sieghafter Grosso weitliln die ge- 
sehiehtslosen Tage jener Periode überragt, hatten ghubensfreudige, kirchen- 
väterliche Milde und zähe, märtyrerhaftc Ausdauer und Widerstandsfähig- 
keit eine seltene Vereinigung gefunden. Unter seiner Leitung erhob sich 
im Jahre 1769 bei San Diego, das 165 Jahre vorher von Vizcaino entdeckt 
und benannt worden war. das erste ftlissionsgebäude mit seinen weissen 
Türmen und alten Glocken, von denen einige noch auf Galleonen von Spa- 
nien herübergebracht worden waren. Immer weiter nordwärts ging der 
Schall dieser Klosterglocken, welcher Schliesslich aus einundzwanzig Mis- 
sitmen eitönk* und t'ingelioitne Indianer sowohl wie ..Golddiggers" in die 
Umzäunung der Missionsgärten lockte, in denen Rosen und Reben in wun- 
derbarer Fülle aufsprossten. Der Gründung der ersten Mission bei San 
Diego folgten weitere zu Ehren der Heihgen; San Gabriel, San Juan Capi- 
strano, San Luis Rey, Santa Barbai-a, Santa Cruz usw. bis hinauf nach San 
Francisco, das zum Andenken an den Stifter des Franziskanerordens den 
ursprünglichen Namen „Mission de los Dolores de Nuestro Padre San Fran- 
cisco de Asis" führte, einen Namen, den das angelsächsische Abkürzungs- 
bedürfnis in die bequemere Bezeichnung „Frisco"' zusammenfasste, die je- 
doch glücklicherweise von den Bewohnern San Pranciscos selbst weder gern 
gebraucht noch gern gehört wird. 

Hier in diesen Niederlassungen im Lande der goldenen Mittagssonne 
vollzog sich hinter den turmgekrönten Mauern der Missionsgebäude, die 
sich in ihrer malerischen, südländischen Architektur so wunderbar har- 
monisch dem Charakter der sie umgebenden ewig sommerlichen Landsehafi 
anschmiegten, das grosse Bekehrungswerk von Tausenden von eingebürciii'n 
Indianern ohne Schwertstreich odor Scheitorliaufcn, und nie hat ein TroplVn 
Heidenblut die weisse Priesterhand Junipero Serras befleckt. Es wai' ein 
Reich des Friedens und der Einfalt, waldumrauscht, roscndurchblüht, 
glockendurchhallt; ein süsslächelnder Kindheilstraura der Weltgeschichte. 
ein anachronistisches, weltvergossenes Stück Arkadien, wie es der noid- 
iiiiioi ikanisehf.' Kontinent seil M'inei' Bi sicdilunt.' mv mehr .sah und viclluicht 
nirgends mehr sehen wird. Ein halbes .Jahrhundert währte cnese histip- 
rißche Idylle, die Indianer, Spanier und Miselilingo unter dem Zeichen der 
weissen Missionskreuze vereinigte. Weithin sichtbar schauten diese Kreuze 
an der ganzen Weatküsle enthing, von den sonnigen Höhen in die von ewi- 
gem Frühling erfüllten Täler und hinaus in das ewiy wotionde M(!er. Aus 
den bcsc hl ;i denen Anfängen (k-r Mis.sionen waren bald umrangreiche Bositz- 
tümer geworden. „Der Samen von allen l'Vüclilen und Pflanzen, die in Spa- 
nien Kedeihen, und die 2ÜÜ Stück Vieh", von welchen ein Brief Junijiom 



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ri'lli'V» oll voll!« iiliri 
m In K-'i'i- 
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Prnmjit Rolli-f Mfi'l 
lllglic.tl Awiiril«; »1" 
tut.' 'it Aw«rilit f"r 'i ' 
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Nearly ]i>tl.l)l>f> »"M im 
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Breathing, l'" 

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San Franciaru, California. 



JUELL GRAHAM 

BEL-U) DESIGNER 

Specializing in Restringing, Knotting and 

Repairing Necklaces, Bracelets. Earrings, 

Beaded Bags, Jewelry. Clasps. Etc. 

Phone Douglas 0653 

209 POST STREET 



MASSAGE 



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SCIENTIFIC BODY MASSAGE 

ELECTRIC CABINET 



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CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



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Senas berichtet, hatten Wurzel in dem neuen Boden gefasst und hatten 
sich im Laufe der Jahre in der gedeihlichen Luft des herriichen Klimas und 
unter der gewissenhaflen Pflege der Klosterschützlinge vervielfacht, vei- 
hundertfacht, vertausendfucht. — Siehenhunderttausend Rinder und seeh- 
zigtausend Pferde grasten im Jahre 1834 auf den verschiedenen Weidiv 
plätzen der Missionen, aus denen nicht nur das Wort Gottes, sondern auch 
eine Menge höchst weltlicher Produkte hervorgingen, die aus Häuten, Seife, 
Leder, Wolle, Salz, Soda, Baumwolle, Tabak, Branntwein. Oliven, Weizen. 
Wein und anderen nützlichen Handelsartikeln bestimden. 

Mit der Angliederung Californiens an die Vereinigten Staaten von 
Nordamerika brach eine neue Aera über das bis dahin friedlich schlum- 
]nernde Eldorado heran. Die wilde, abenteuerliehe Zeit der ,,Aigonauten" 
wandelte über Nacht Land und Leute. Die Hammerschläge der emsigen 
Goldgräber durchhalllen die Berge. Ueber die so lange unzugänglichen 
Felsenmauern der Sierra Nevada wurden Brücken geschlagen und Wege ge- 
bahnt. Der Osten reichte dem Westen die Hand. Wüste und Bergwildernis 
bildeten nicht länger mehr Hindernisse. Amerikanischer Unternehmungs- 
geist nahm Besitz von Wald und Flur. Städte entstanden, Eisenbahnen 
durchzogen das Land. Festungswerke sicherten die Häfen. Sagemühlen 
verarbeiteten den Wald. Bergwerke durchwühlten die Erde. Dampf schifte 
durchkreuzten das Meer. Obst und Wein füllten die Markte. Oede Land- 
striche wurden durch Bewässerungsanlagen in fruchtbare Täler verwandelt 
und scheinbar unermessliche Oelquellen angebohrt. 

An der mittleren Küste entlang erheben sich noch immer, so weit der 
feuchte Hauch der Seenebel reicht, die allen, mächtigen, ewigen Wächter 
des Westens: die tausendjährigen Hotholztannen (Sequoia sempervirens) in 
den Reservationen von „Big Trees" Iwi Santa Cruz und „Muirwoods" bei 
Mill Valley usw. Drei Jahrtausende und wohl noch länger pulsiert da.'^ 
Leben in vielen dieser Baumriesen, von denen einige eine Höhe von 300 
Fuss bei einem Umfange von 7.5 Fuss erreichen. Gleich den Pyramiden in 
Aegypten, so ragen diese lebenden immergrünen Säulen aus einer langst 
erstorbenen Welt in unsere Zeit hinein und erzählen von grauen. Vortagen 
riesenhaften Wachstums und übermächtiger Grössenverhältnisse unter den 
Pflanzen und Tieren. Das gleichmässige Küma, dessen Temperatur im Win- 
ter nur .selten unter den (Jefrierpunkt sinkt und in den meisten Gegenden, 
namentlich an der Küste, an den heissesten Summertagen nie mehr als 90 
Giad aufweist, lockt mit jedem Jahr mehr und mehr Ansiedler aus dem 
Osten herbei, — „Sunset" ist ein Wort, dem man vielfach in Californien be- 
gegnet. Und es liegt in der Tat etwas wie der leise, idyllische und unend- 
lich friedvolle Hauch einer Sonnenunteigangsstimmung über vielen dieser 
zierlich kleinen, typisch californischen Cottages und slattliehen L;ituiliäuser. 
in denen ihre Bewohner Zuflucht vor den Winterstürmeii des Noidnis und 
der Sonnenglut des Ostens gefunden. Bis hoch zum Dach hinauf ranken 
Rosensträucher, die nimmer aufliören, zu allen Jahreszeiten duftende Blüten 
zu treiben. 

Die Haupteinnahmc(|ueII(* dun californischen Farmers bildet die Obst- 
kuHur. Drei Fünftel der Pflaumen für ganz Amerika werd(>n in dem Tale 
von Santa Clara gezogen. UnveigesHlieh ist der Anldick der lilülienden 
IJauroe im Frühjahr, die weithin hunderte von Acker mit zartem Dull und 



Bring this iulvertJsenieiil for apedul inducements 

"Seeing Is Believiofl" 
Learn to Play the Piano Via the Easiest Method— 

"THE FUN METHOD" 

Keynote— Simplicity 

H is endorsed on the covers, by the wnrld'a beat 

musicians, to be "Fundamentally Correct" 

LEARN ALL BY YOURSELF 

Pliiy a piece at your first silling. Send Tor It, or call 

at the Schocil. For set. only $5. 

"BE CONVINCED" 

KNOXWAY MODERN PIANO SCHOOL 

Suite 404. 1319 M^irket .St UNderhill 5116 



R. RIEGER BOOK CO. 

DEUTSCHE BUCHHAl^DLUNG. BOOKS, 

PICTURES AND ART GOODS 

ZITHERS. MUSIC and STRINGS 

Ag;ent for Fornis Alpen Kräuter 



Phone VNderhUl 8487 
27 SEVENTH STREET 

San Francisco 



THE HOTCAKE 

S. Edward Williams, Prop. 
A New Kind of Coffee House 
We fry you an order of Doughnuts in two min- 
utes. We bake you a pan of biscuits in 3 minutes 
Take Home a Wonderful Apple Pie, 35r 

478 O'FARRELL STREET 

Phone FRtuiklln S586 



The Anglo-Danish Institute 

MASSAGE AND ELECTRICAL VIBRATORY 
TREATMENT 

ELECTRIC CABINET BATHS 
PHYSICAL HYDRO THERAPY 



Ü8 POST STREET 

Olllce Kooni 318 — Sail ■■'nincUcu 
DOuglim 5»7S 



DAVIDSON & SONS 

sii.\iti<: siioi' 

window Shndi'S tind Ortiiierlfs Mnnufiivtuittl. 
InntallMl niid Repulrvtl 

1115 Mo.'VlXIHTIClt ST. Phune WAIiiut U39U 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



J A 


P 


A S E 


S 


E 


TEA 


GARDES 






G. HAGIWARA 








GOLDEN GATE PARK 










San Francisco 







keuschem Blütensch immer überfluten. Aepiel, Birnen, Kirschen, Aprikosen. 
Pfirsiche und Beeren aller Art werden alljiihrlich in vielen tausenden von 
Waggon ladungen von hier in alle Weltteile gesandt. Die meisten die'ser 
Früchte dienen als Tafelobst und tragen mancher Tischgesellschaft des fer- 
nen Ostens einen Hauch cahfornischer Sonnenfreude zu. Der Süden liefert 
Orangen, Zitronen, Mandeln und Oliven. Gemüse aller Ai"t, von der Arti- 
choke bis zum Weisskraut, gedeiht allerorten und zu jeder Jahreszeit in 
Hülle und Fülle. Auch Nüs^se in mannigfachsten Sorten wachsen fast über- 
all im Staate. Und die Traube, die Vertreterin des Edelgeschlechts unter 
den Früchten, hat gleichfalls hier in ihren süssesten und reichsten Arten 
eine ausgedehnte und gedeihliche Heimat gefunden. Die Weinberge von 
Sonoma, Napa und St. Helena, die an vielen Stellen lebhaft an die Reben- 
hügel des Rheins erinnern, geben Zeugnis davon. Welche Wunder auf dem 
Gebiet der Obstkultur erzielt werden können, das hat Luther Burbank auf 
einer Versuchsfarm nahe Santa Rosa durch seine staunenerregenden Erfolge 
dargetan. Von den Wundern des ealifornischen Klimas berichtet Ch. F. 
Holder in einer kleinen Broschüre, dass man in Pasadena, einer Naehbar- 
stadt von Los Angeles, an ein und demselben Tage im Ozean baden, in einem 
Blumengarten Rosen pflücken, im Orangenhain Orangen essen, auf schnee- 
bedeckten Bergeshöhen Schlitten fahren und abends wieder gemütlich in 
Pasadena zu Nacht speisen kann. Und das alles an einem Januartag mitten 
im tiefsten Winter! Wer möchte da noch h-gendwo anders auf der Erde 
leben, als hier in Californien, wo solche Vereinigung aller vier Jahreszeiten 
in einer kurzen Tagesspanne von 24 Stunden mögUch ist? Und wenn auch 
ganz often zugegeben werden muss, dass selbst hier in „the Golden State" 
nicht immer alles Gold ist, was glänzt; dass oftmals feuchte Nebel und 
rauhe Winde mitten im Sommer rücksichtslos durchs Goldene Tor fegen 
und auf Stunden und Tage jeden Goldschimmer an der Küste auslöschen, 
so bleibt trotz alledem diesem Lande ein ganz besonderer Zauber zu eigen. 
Er flutet durch die Strassen von San Francisco, durch die sich ein ewig 
wechselnder Strom von festlichen, leichtlebigen Menschen aller Nationen 
der Erde ergiesst Er quillt aus den malerischen Linien und wunderbar 
fein abgetönten Farben der Felsen und Fluten an der Küste von San Diego. 
Er duftet aus den Rosengärten Santa Bait)aras, in denen der leise Glocken- 
klang versunkener Klosterherrüchkeit schläft. Er dämmert in den gefalle- 
nen Kreuzgängen und zerbröckelnden Kirchenmauern der Missionen. Er 
schimmert von den mit ewigem Schnee bedeckten Hohen der Sierrn Nevada 
nieder, deren Gipfel in einsamer Grösse das ruhelose Gi-triebe endloser Gold- 
felder überragen. Er steigt aus den kleinen und grösseren Inseln empor. 
die wie weisse Riesensehwäne auf der blauen Meere.sflut ruhen. Ei- winkt 
von den verschnörkelten Giebeln und grünumrankten Veranden der in nie 
welkenden W;tIdcK(,'rün versteekten Villen und lauBchigen CottaKtft* von Mill 
Valley, diesem herrlichen Sehwoizitrtale Califurniens. Er träumt unter den 
hocliKedi ebenen Magn(jli<*n und i'ahiicn in» huko des Kapilolü zu Sacra- 
mento. Er ({rÜHHt aus den silbernen Wasserfällen und walduiusäuinlen 



JAMES K. HAZEL, M.D. 

PHYSICIAN AXD SURGEON 

Announces the opening of offices at 
695 CHENERY STREET 

Comer Diamond 

Office Hours : 2 p, m. to S p. m. 7 p. m. to S p. m. 

Sundays by Appointment 

Telephones 
Office: ELkridge 0854 Residence: B.\>-\ifu 59.» 



Dr. Sarshal D. Cooper 

OSTEOP.\THIC PHYSICL4N- A>D SURtiEON 

In practice in San Francisco conlinuouäly 
since 1904 



Phone GArfleld 3831 
SCHROTH BllLDlNC. 

240 Stwkton St.. Suite 807, San FruDcbwo 



MARION LAZANSKY 

TYPIST 

Dlttographiug 

Sundays and Evenings at R^ul&r DaUy Bat« 

KEani>- 1482 

681 M-ARKtrr STKKtrr 

SUA Munuduufk BuUdUiK 



CHARLUS Z.ANONI 

I'lloriuatVPHKK 



Ul)i MISSION STKI>JCT 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



HARRY R. MYGRANT 



GLASS AND GLAZING 



AUTOMOBILE GLASS INSTALLED WHILE YOU WAIT 



BROKEN WINDOWS REPAIRED 



676 EDDY STREET, SAN FRANCISCO 

Phone ORdway 2397 



Schluchten des weltberühmten Yosemite-Tales und der spiegelglatten Fläche 
des Lake Tahoe. Er rauscht aus den tausendjährigen Rotholztannon dt's 
gigantischen Urwaldes im Sctiuoia Nationalpark bei Visalia. Er flüstert in 
den sturnigepoitschlen Cyprfssen am Fclaenufer von Monterey und den 
düsteren Fichten von Carmel by the Sea, der weltverlorenen, romanti.sehen 
Niederlassung californischer Künstler. Er raunt in den immergrünen 
Eichenhäng:en des Mount Tamalpais. dessen Spitze dem entzückten Auge 
ein Panor;ima Inetet, das an Grob'sartigkeit dem berühmten Fernblick von 
der Höhe des Camaldoli bei Neapel in nichts nachsteht, und er lodert in 
unbeschreiblicher Sirahlenpracht und Farbenglut voll erhabener Majestät 
in den Sonnenuntergängen am Goldenen Tor .... 

Es ist ein Zauber eigener Art, dieser Zauber Californiens, der eigent- 
lich nur empfunden und nicht beschrieben sein will. Ein Zauber hell und 
heiter, wie der wolkenlose Himmel eines Sommertages, lichtvoll und leuch- 
tend, wie die goldene Nationalblume des Staates „Eschscholtzia California", 
der unser deutsch-amerikanischer Dichter F. C. Castelhun einst die nachste- 
hend verzeichneten, prächtigen Verse gewidmet. Er webt sich zusammen aus 
einem unzerstörbaren Oiitimismus, aus südländischer Sorglosigkeit und west- 
licher Unverdrossenheit, aus Lebensfreude und Daseinsraut, aus Blütenduft 
und Goldstaub und aus hundert lichten, leichten, lockenden Tönen, Farben 
und Stimmungen, wie 'sie einem seltsamen Gemisch von Entschwindendem 
und Werdendem, von Veigangenem und Zukünftigem entströmen. All die 
bunten, malerischen Geister der von puritanischem Ernüchterungsdrange 
verscheuchten alten spanischen Romantik steigen in diesem Zauber auf und 
nieder, der, wie ein Trunk aus dem sagenhaften Löwenbrunnen der Al- 
hambra, ein ewiges Heimweh nach dem sonnigen Californien in uns er- 
weckt 



Herbert C. Kaufman 

Attomey-at-Law 
814-818 Humboldt Bank Building 

San Franrisco 
Phone gutter 5281 



CARL W. MUELLER 

ATTORNEY and COUNSELOR-AT-LAW 

COURT COMMISSIONER 

Of the City and County of San Francisco 
State of California 

Telephone DOuglas 1082 



339-340 PHELAN BUILDING 

760 MARKET STREET 
San Frant^sco 



Eschscholtzia California 

Vun F. C. CASTEILHUN 

Frühling ist es, voller Frühling, und wir sind doch erst im März! 
Grün die Wälder, grün die Felder, Blumen, Blüten, allorwärl^s; 
Und in Fülle goldnen Glanzes griisst uns die Eschscholtzia, 
Die vor allen andern Forschern hier zuerst Chamisso sah. 

Esehscholtz, seinem Freund, zu Eliren hat die Blume er benannt, 
Und den harten fremden Namen führt sie nun im eignen Land. 
Sie, dein Sinnbild, Californien, Land des goldnen Sonnenscheins, 
Goldner Aehren und Orangen, lichten Goldes, goldnen Weins. 



BERRY STUDIOS 

C AMILLE MILLS 

Commercial Art. Designing. Window Displays. 
Show Cards. Silk Screen Process. Reproductions. 
Interiors, Furniture. Fixtures, Display Materials. 



sutler 8720 
239 GEARY STREET 

San Fraiirlsco 



REDWOOD BURLS 
AND NOVELTIES 



SEA SHELL SHOP 

OPPOSITE FLEISHHACKER ZOO, SAN FRANCISCO 

- SOUVENIRS OF CALIFORNIA - 

MT. TAMALPAIS SOUVENIR SHOP 

"Top of the Mountain" 



SHELL NO\ l-XTIES 
INDIAN JEWELKY 



10 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



Das Tosemite-Tal 

Von FR. VON BODENSTEDT anlilsHlitli seines Beaiiclies Im Juni IBltO 

Voll einem Tale liürt icli WiinUer siiycn. 

Das lieniicli wie kein andres sei hienieiinn, 

Inmitten Felsen, die es lioch umiagen, 

Vom Liirm der Welt und ihrem Streit geschieden. 

Derweil auf seiner wasserreichen Flur 

Die Form und farbeidjildende Natur 

In reinem Himmelsj,nan2 mit Segensfülle 

So üppiy schmüela in zauhervüller Hülle. 

Da fasste mich ein wundersam Gelüsten 

Das schöne Tal zu selm; und landwärts wandt ich 

Die Selirilte von des stillen Ozeans Küsten, 

bald deine Felsenhöhn wiederum erkannt ich, 

Sierra Nevada, und ich stieg empor, 

Wo sich die Ebne San Jüaquin.s verlor 

Vor weithin schimmernden Granitkolossen 

Und Blütenpraeht und Sonnenglanz umflossen. 

Wie wehte von den weissen Berjjesgipfeb 
Die Schneeluft küiil durcli meine heissen Pfade, 
Leis murmelts in der würzigen Fichte Wipfeln^ 
Die hoch wie Türme ragen, kerzengerade. 
Derweil der Wildhach laut vorüberschnaubt, 
Und sein Geschäum dem Ross spritzt bis ans Haupt, 
Doch ohne Hemmung seiner sichern Schritte — 
Ein Abgrund droiite, wenn es seitwäi'ts glitte! 

Und immer mehr verwildert rings die Wildnis 
In der Granitkolosse Herrschgebiete, 
Bis endlieh tief dem Blick dein hehres Bildnis 
Sich ganz entschleiert, Tal von Yosemite! 
Geblendet stand ich, überwiiltigt ganz 
Von Deiner sonnenlichten Felsen Glanz 
Und Wa^serlitllen, über hohe Kanten 
llerunterdonnernd, sprühend von Demanten. 

Der Zauber wächst ringsum bei jedem Schritte 
Der reissende Merced tobt mir entgegen, 
Der pfeilschnell hinschiesst durch des Tales Mitte; 
Wildwasser kreuzen mich auf meinen Wegm- 
Ein feuchter Wind bewegt die linde Luft, 
Turmhohe Fichten hauchen würzgen Duft' 
Und übersiuingen weit im Spiel der Schatten 
Die Eichen und die Ccdern auf den Matten. 

Die Felsen ragen bald wie hehre Dome 
2um Himmel auf, und bald wie Ungeheuer 
Der Vorwelt, die erstairt im Zeitenstrome. 
Doch in dnn Adern glimmt noch Lebensfeuer, 
Das bald in holden Blumen sich erschliesst, 
In Busch und Baum empor zum Lichte schiesst, 
Und bald sjch gar in menschlichen Gestalten 
Titanenhaft suclit graunvoll zu entfalten. 

Ein Zauber weht ums Tal von Yosemite, 

per mir in seiner sltrinernen Naturschrift 

Zum Leben weckte manche Hchattenmythe, 

Die unverständlich in gelehrter Urscin-ifl' 

Und blick ich auf zu diesem Fclsenkamm, 

Der einem wilden Indianerstamm 

Zum Hort gedient, bi« ihn die Weissen landen 

Und machten, das« die Holen bald versehwanden.- 

So mahnt mich» an des Ostens lerne Luide 
Daraus wir unsre spätp WeinJieit holten, 
Wie Stoir zu unsri^m Feuer jetzt vom Hiamh! 



H. & A. COMPANY 

BUSINESS BIJILDKKS 
3004 - 16th STREET 

San FriuirifH-o 



MARGARETT NEW KIRK'S 

SCALP TREATMENTS 

Scientific treatments uf thtr scalp im men. women 

and children for falling, oily, dry and dead hair 

with hand- massaging and natural 

Sun-dry Shampoo 

166 GEARY STREET 

GArlield 9999 

Appointment 10 (o 5 



Uptown Beauty Salon 

Mary Marie Firm. Prop. 
First Class Work in all Beauty Cuitare 

Try Our Special Oil (Soaplessf Shampoo 
Evenings by Appointment 

H£nUoclf 4036 

1918 MARKET STREET 

San FrancL-H-o 



Office Phone MLssion 4348 Res. RAndoIph 46Ä^. 
Builders Ebcchange SUtti-r »i7(»0 

Reliable Painting Co. 

R POSTLER. Proprietor 
HouM>, Oftice i'ulntliig und Wood Floisliioj- 

Tintlng and Paper Hanging in AM It» Bruches 

3247 - 19th STREET 

Comer Shutwell 
Sun FnuiibHO 




DR. JOS. SIMONE 

CHIROrRAtTX)R 

Hours 11 a, m,-4 p. ni and by api>ointm,rm 
EUectro-Therapy 




3534 TWENTIETH STREKI 

Between Mission and VaJrnoi« 
Sau Frun(.-lMH» 



Frommer & Schwarz 

SAUSAGE MAMFAlTt K>J4S 

'IVI«i|ifauatt .MArk<>l MW 

I7HÜ MINSION STREET 

liiui I'>uiu'Im<« 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



11 



Der Wälder, die veisteinevt längst veikoliUen, 

Und wo nacli allem liöclislen Bildungsglanz 

Die Völker wieder so verwildert ganz 

Wie diese Holen, die nur alte Sagen 

Bewahrt, von Lieb' und liass und kühnem Wagen. 

Die Wilden sterljen aus, die Sagen bleiben, 
Sit! leben im Gesiing dei- Uelterwinder 
Und wirken fort, um neue Fiuclit zu treiben, 
Von ihren Vätern erben sie die Kinder. 
Und ich aueli pflückte in der neuen Welt 
Manch schöne Blume auf dem Sagenfeld, 
Sie dem Erinnerungskranze einzuschlingen 
Und in die alte Welt mit heimzubringen. 

California 

Von THEUDUK KIRCHHOPP 

Warum du mir lieb l)ist, du Land meiner Wahl?— 
Dich liei)t ja der warme Sunnenstrahl, 
Der aus Aethertiefe. azurrein. 
Deine Fluren küsst mit goldenem Schein! 
Dich liebt ja des Südens balsamische Luft, 
Die im Wintx?r dir schenket den Blütenduft, 
Deine Felder schniückt mit smaragdenem Kleid, 
Wenn's friert im Osten und stürmt und schneit! 

Dich liebt ja das Meer, das „stille" genannt, 

Das mit Silber umsäumt dein grünes Gewand, 

Dicli schützend umaimt mil schwellender Lust, 

Dich wonniglich presst an die wogende Brust!— 

Wie dein iNleer, wie der Lüfte Balsamhauch, 

Wie die Sonne dich liebt, so lieb' ich dich auch. 

Deine Söhne zumal, — ihr rasches Blut, 

Pulsierend in frohem Lebensmut, 

Deine Töchter, mit Wangen Irisch und gesund. 

Die Seele im Auge, zum Küssen der Mund. 

Wai-um du mir lieb bist? — Nicht ist es dein Gold, 

Du Land, wo die westliche Woge rollt. 

Ich wählte zur Heimat diesen Strand, 

Weil ich oll'one, warme Herzen hier fand, 

Weil fremd hier der niedere, kleinliche Sinn, 

Der nur strebt und trachtet nach kargem Gewinn, 

Weil die eigene Kraft hier den Mann erprobt. 

Nicht ererbtes Gut den Besitzer lobt. 

Eine Welt für sich, voll Schönheit, trennt 

Dich die hohe Sierra vom Kontinent: 

Doch schlugst du mit eiserner Brücke den Pfad 

Ueber wolkentragender Berge Grat, 

Und täglich vernimmst du am goldenen Port 

Von den fernsten GesUden der Volker Wort. 

Du bewahrtost das Feuer der Jugend dir, 

Den Geist, dem Arbeit dos Lebens Zier, 

Der wagt und ringet und nie verzagt, 

Und, wo es sich zeigt, das Glück erjagt. 

Ja! Ich liebe dich, blühendes, westliches lAind. 

Wo die neue, die schöne Heimat ich fand. 

Wer früge wohl noch, der dich Herrliche sah, 

Wajum du mir lieb bist, California? 

Der Staat California 

Kill «L-im«!' /.iiuhL.r 1st v.n eluvn 
Horn K-ii"l 'lea 'J-'l-J« «"1 soll"" M^r. 
Wu «rllBBOiiil 8lfl> (Jio rolmon nelBo» 
Und OUiton winkon frllclituBi-'Iiwur. 

Ijltt Ruito ruiri Im waimnn Stnihlo. 
K« IrOumt fllo Luft voll Sonm-mrlUhn. 
Utid goKlnor Mohn ittolBt au« «k-m i als 
Auf Uorifunlnihn, dlo Humor (irlln. 
jn UuBuii ll««t CüV Tatf vnraunkon. 
Wlo nto floiii Outen ol<> vt.rllelin. 
Und wijr von Uirom Jm» uolninUon. 
Will nlnmiurnioln' von dünnen «lohn. 

Kunind Nlo». 



Blondie's Beauty Shop 

"BETTY," Proprietor 
Blondes, Brunettes. Red Heads -be your type 

Permanent Wave, complete 52.50 
Open 10 a. m, to 7 p. m. and by appointment 

Phone VAIencla 2033 

3341-43 - 23rd STREET 

Between Valencia and Mission 



FREE CAMERAS FREE 

Save our business cards. One ^ven with each 25c 

Purchase. Only 50 cards entitles you to 

a Real Camera Free 

Picture Den at ms Market Stre*'t 

San Rafael Art Store 

PICTURES AND FRAMES 

GREETING CARDS FOR ALL OCCASIONS 

CIRCULATING LIBRARY 

3462 MISSION STREET 

Siin Francisco 



EXCELSIOR 
BAKERY 

FRED SEITZ, Prop. 

4493 MISSION STREET 

San Francisco 



CHAS. FASHION GRILL 

243-245 O'FARRELL STREET 

San Friuicisco 
Phone GArfleld 9T2S 

50c Merchants Luncheon 50c 

Served from 11 a. m, to 2:30 p m. 

Special 65c Lunch 

Served from 11 a. m. to 2:30 p. m. 
Same lunch with chicken 15c 

Dinner DeLuxe $1.00 

Served from 11 a m to 9 p. m, 

Special Dinner 

Italian and French 

$L25 



lUrr. tins Cemiit ttbtr ein juHjtff. oft UHitii- 
ges AtäJchen.' 



12 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



Tintenfass und Pistolenkasten 

Journalismus in San Francisco zur Zeit der Vigihmtm 

/'oh George F. Mosbr 




■\/- 



I LEICH den romantischen Geschich- 
ten von den sogenannten Vigilanten, 
die einst in den wilden Tagen des 
californischcn Goldfiebers in San 
Francisco mit der Pistole und dem 
Strick Gesetz und Ordnung schufen, ist ein 
anderes, nicht weniger interessantes Kapitel 
aus jenen, achtzig Jahre zurückliegenden Zei- 
ten in Vergessenheit geraten, obwohl es in sei- 
ner Art als Beitrag zur Entwicklungsgeschich- 
te unseres Landes ein besseres Schicksal ver- 
dient. Das sind die Betätigungen jener uner- 
schrockenen Männer, die mit der Feder in der 
einen Hand und der Pistole in der andern die 
ersten Zeitungen am Goldenen Tor heraus- 
gaben und In ihrer Weise einen der farben- 
reichsten Abschnitte zur wechselvollen Ge- 
schichte des amerikanischen Journalismus bei- 
trugen. Hier und da taucht einmal ein oder 
der andere Artikel, den jene romantischen 
Träger der Kultur schrieben, aus der Vergan- 
genheit auf, aber zum allcrgrössten Teil sind 
sie von den Flammen, die von Zeit zu Zeit die 
hölzernen Bauten des San Francisco der fünf- 
ziger und sechziger Jahre verzehrten, vernich- 
tet worden, und was, mehr durch Zufall als 
mit Vorbedacht, gerettet wurde, ist tief unter 
einem Wust von neuen Erzeugnissen des Zci- 
timgswesens begraben worden. Bringt man 
es heute ans Licht des Tages zurück und wirft 
man einen Blick darauf, so glaubt man sich 
beinahe in die Zeiten der Fabel zurückversetzt, 
in Tage, in denen persönliche Angriffe auf den 
Charakter politischer Figuren oder auf Zei- 
tungsrivalen Ziel und Zweck des Zeitungs- 
wesens gewesen zu sein scheinen. 

Die Männer, die in den fünfziger und sech- 
ziger Jahren des vergangenen Jahrhunderts 
dort in der Zeltunsschreibstube sassen, waren 
Männer der rücksichtslosen Tat und musstcn 
es sein. Das waren damals wilde, unordent- 
liche Zeiten in San Francisco mit einer Be- 
völkerung, die zum grössten Teil aus hab- und 
raubsüchtigen Abenteurern und Elementen, 
die in den älteren Teilen der Republik sich 
durch Gesetz und Ordnung gehemmt fühlten 
oder von ihren gesetzliebenden Mitbürgern 
ausgetrieben worden waren, bestand. Fast 
über Nacht war die Stadt, die 1853 an fünf- 
zlgtausend Einwohner zahlte, aus dem Sumpf- 
boden an der hcrrhchcn Bucht emporgeschos- 
sen, und in jenem Jahr bemühten sich nicht 
weniger als zwölf Herausgeber vrm Zeitungen, 
die in der Kegel auch ihre eigenen Blätter 
schrieben, um die CJunst des Publikums. Die 
Menge, erhitzt sowieso durch allerband Ver- 
gewaltigungen, Diebstahl von i,andansj)rü- 
chen, verrottete iruiere Politik und die Kor- 
ruption der Gerichte, verlangte von der Presse 
rücksichtslose» Vorgehen und ungeschminkte 
Sprache, und damit warlcten die Zeitungs- 
»chreibcr von damali» auf. Die Zeitunghschrci- 
ber und Herausgeber, oft Männer von guter 
Erziehung auk dem Ütten, beachteten diese 



Forderungen, ja, kamen ihnen sogar zuvor. 
Das Resultat war ein richtiger Hexentanz dej 
Personaljournalismus mit all seinen Auswüch- 
sen, ein Schimpfen, Verunglimpfen und bitter- 
böse Angriffe persönlicher Natur, die ihres- 
gleichen suchen. In San Francisco verlangte 
das Publikum keine Tagesneuigkeiten ; was 
täglich geschah, sprach sich auch ohne Zeitun- 
gen schnell genug herum und auf eine Hand- 
voll Morde und Totschläge mehr oder \venigcr 
kam es nicht an. Wonach man fragte, war 
vielmehr, wer zur Zielscheibe der giftigen 
Pfeile der Zeitungsschreiber genommen wurde. 
Nicht die Neuigkcitsspalten, sondern die Leit- 
artlkclsclten waren die Hauptsache, und ob- 
wohl die betreffenden Artikel meist keine Na- 
mensunterschriften trugen, wusste das Lesc- 
publlkum doch aus Stil und Phrase den Ver- 
fasser zu erkennen. 

Zu den kampfesmutigsten und hitzigsten der 
San Franclscoer Zeltungsleute jener Periode 
gehörte James King, von William, wie er sich 
ausdrücklich nannte, um sich von gewöhn- 
lichen James King, deren es mehrere gab, zu 
unterscheiden. Er war vom Evening Bulletin 
und seine Ergüsse, die sich hauptsächlich gegen 
korrupte Politiker richteten, wurden vom un- 
ehrlichen Elemente gefürchtet, wie durch fol- 
gende Bemerkung, die man am 22. November 
1855 im Bulletin druckte, wenig mehr als ei- 
nen Monat nach der Geburt dieser Zeitung, 
bewiesen wird: „Man erzählt uns, dass jetzt 
darauf gewettet wird, dass der Herausgeber 
des Bulletin in zwanzig Tagen nicht mehr am 
Leben sein wird." Die Ordnung- und gesetz- 
liebenden Elemente von San Francisco gelang- 
ten bald zu der Einsicht, dass sie in James 
King einen Vorkämpfer hatten, der den kor- 
rupten Gruppen das Leben helss zu machen 
willens war. und in einem Monat hatte das 
Bulletin 2500 Leser, vor Ende des Jahres so- 
gar 3500, bei weitem mehr als sonst eine Zei- 
tung in San Francisco. Kings Popularität gab 
seinen Feinden zu denken; sie wussten, dass 
die Bevölkerung nur eines Führers bedurfte, 
um die Unterdrückung der verbrecherischen 
Elemente, an deren Spitze James P. Casey, 
Billy Mulligan and Yankee Sullivan, die die 
Macht durch Korruinpierung der W^ihlcn und 
Gerichte in der Hand hielten, standen, herbel- 
zufübrcn. Es herrschten in der Tat fast un- 
glaubliche Zustände. Ein gewisser Charles 
Cora, ein Spielhöllenbesitzer, hatte mit dem 
Bundesmarschail William H. Richardson In 
einer Wirtschaft einen Streit gehabt und ihn 
später hinterrücks erschossen. Sechs Monate 
lang war der Prozess des Mordhuben hinaus- 
geschoben worden und jedermann erwartete, 
dass Cora schliesslich, wie es bei hundert an«le- 
reri Morden schon geschehen war, freigelassen 
werden würde. Da sprang King in die Bre- 
sche und feuerte (olgende Breitseite: „Aclnet 
auf die Geschworenenbank I Was wir vor- 
schlagen Ist fidgendes: Wenn die jurybank g.- 



packt wird (mir Freunden de» Angeklagten) 
hängt den Sheriff oder jagt ihn au« der Stadt! 
Wenn Bill Mulligan, der Sheriff, leinen 
Freund Cora entkommen laMt, hängt Mulli- 
gan oder treibt ihn in die Verbannung!" King 
wurde auf der Stelle von Cora* Freund Jame» 
P. Ca.sey in einer Zeitung, die er zum Bntm 
seiner verbrecherischen Ge^inniing^genowen 
herausgab, angegriffen und das Bulletin erwi- 
derte: ,,Dic Tatsache, da.« Casey in Sing Sing 
gesessen hat, ist kein Verbrechen im Sinne der 
Gesetze unseres Staates, ebenso wenig berech- 
tigt der Umstand, dass Cxsey sich in einem 
Distrikt, in dem er nicht einmal wählbar war 
in den Stadtrat wählen Mem, Herrn Bagler 
dazu, Casey zu erschie&sen, wie er gedroht hat 
obwohl Cascy reichlich verdient hat, dais ihm 
der Hals mit dem Strick gestreckt wnrd." Das 
sind einige Proben journalistischen StiU vom 
Jahre 1856 in San Francisco; *ie würden unter 
gewöhnlichen Umständen höchstens Gelich- 
ter hervorgerufen haben, aber die Feinde von 
Gesetz und Ordnung waren inzwischen von 
King so in die Enge getrieben worden, dass sie 
Casey veranlassten, die ,, Beleidigung" zu rä- 
chen und King über den Haufen zu schiosen. 
Das was aber sogar für San Francisco zu starL 
In den vier Tagen, die nach dem Attentat auf 
King dessen Tode vorausgingen, bildete sich 
ein sogenanntes Vigilanzkomitee, bestehend 
aus sechstausend gut bewaffneten, entschlosse- 
nen Bürgern. Cora und Casey wurden unter 
ihren Gewehren zum Prozess gebracht, und 
als die grosse Glocke des Feuerwrhnurr» 
Kings Tod ankündigte, wurden beide aus dem 
Gefägnis geholt und öffentlich am 20. Mai 
1856 gehenkt. Das Vigilanzkomitee aber 
setzte die Rcinigungsarbeit fort, und alsesstd) 
P'nde Juli auflöste, hatte es vier andere Mör- 
der gehenkt und einige zwanzig der schlimm- 
sten Burschen aus der Stadt getrieben. James 
King von AVilliani war als Märtyrer der guten 
Sache gestorben und die Macht der Presse 
hatte sich wieder einmal erwiesen. 

Zeitungsschreiber vom Schlage eines King 
schwcbteti aber nicht nui in der Gefahr, von 
gedungenen Mördern oder den von ihnen de- 
nunzierten Verbrechen mis^andett oder ge- 
tötet zu werden ; ebenso bedrohlich lür sie «-ar 
das Duell, mit dem in den Kinderjahien San 
Franciscos sogenannte Ehrenhandel gewöhn- 
heitsniässig ausgetragen wurden. Persunlicbc 
Zusanunenstüsse kanven häufig vor. Wenn 
sich jemand durch einen Zeilungwnikel bc- 
sotulers getroffen oder in seiner ..Ehre" gr 
krankt fühlte, schickte er dem betrelleihlcn 
Zeitungsschreiber seine Sekundanten «u. und 
an Stelle der Feder trat die Pistole, oft genug 
zwischen Zeitungsherausgebern selber, Jeiui 
die Herren verMhonten einander — ubwoW 
sie mn\ M-Iben Heaile gehörten — Juahaus 
nuht, Die Zeituugssihrriber \\h\ San Kr«tt- 
Cisco scheinen eine beMMider* cniptuulliche Ras- 
se gewesen /,ii sein, wie die Chtuiuk benchiei. 
Znlig im Jahre |SSl Mwvhte r.n Me.i WiJ- 
ker, eiiiei der Herjusgrbci de» Herald, einen 
gimstii Sk.uidal AUS dei geiivhrluheit Vei»*! 
rung eines NHchlasaes. Kiii FieiuiJ de» brtr»^ 
fendrii Ruhters abrieb daiaur ruM-ii hrleiJ« 
gendcn llnet m\ \V.,lkri. Kin Duell uUgW. 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



13 



in dem Walker leicht verwundet wurde. Das 
stellte auf beiden Seiten die verletzte Ehre 
wieder her. Im September desselben Jahres 
traten E. C. Kemblc, der Herausgeber des 
"Alta California", und ein gewisser George 
McDoiigal zweimal zum Duell an, aber in bei- 
den Fällen legten sich die Hehorden ins Mittel 
und die Ehre der beiden Herren musste sich 
ohne niut abfinden. Im Juli 1852 harte John 
Nugent vom Herald einen Zweikampf mit 
John Cotter, einem San Franciscoer Alder- 
mann, aiiszufechtcn. Regleitet von einer Mas- 
se von Freunden und Berichterstattern, die zu 
dem Duell wie zu einem Stiergefecht zogen, 
standen die beiden Kampen einander in Contra 
Costa, mit Pistolen in der Hand, auf zehn 
Schritte gegenüber. Nugents Waffe war in 
Unordnung, und wiihrcnd er sie zurecht brin- 
gen uollte, schoss ihn sein Gegner ins Bein. 
Bald war er geheilt und bereits Im Juni des 
nächsten Jahres hatte er wieder ein Duell, und 
zwar mit einem gewissen Hayes, ebenfalls ei- 
nem AKlermann. Auf Aldcrnihnner scheint 
N'ugent einen besonderen Hnss gehabt zu ha- 
ben. Und wiederum zog er den kürzeren. Bei 
dieser Gelegenheit fochten die Duellanten mit 
Jagdgewehren auf zwanzig Schritt Entfer- 
nung und Nugent trug eine schwere Wunde 
davon. Das Jahr 1852 war überhaupt schwer 
ffir San Franciscoer Zeitungsschreiber. Am 2. 
August wurde Edward Gilbert. Chefredakteur 
des "Alta California", vom Staatssenator J. 
W. Denver, den er wegen der Annahme eines 
bestimmten Gesetzes durch die Hechel gezogen 
hatte, erschossen. Vier Monate später focht 
A. C. Russell vom Picayune mit dem frü- 
heren Gouverneur John McDoiigal, den er 
;vegen eines Strasscnbaus angegriffen hatte, ein 
Duell aus und trug eine Brustwunde davon. 

Das nächste Duell zwischen Zeitungsleuten 
ist für uns von ganz besonderem Interesse, 
denn es wurde von zwei deutschen Zeitungs- 
leuten, C. Krug von der San Francisco "Freie 
Presse" und Dr. Lohr vom "California Demo- 
krat", ausgefochten. Die beiden deutschspra- 
chigen Zeitungen standen politisch in feind- 
lichen Lagern, und als Dr. Löhr in seinem 
Demokrat einige recht unverblümte Redens- 
arten über die Politik des Herrn Krug er- 
schienen Ücss, fülilte sich letzterer in seiner 
Klirc gekränkt und forderte den streitbaren 
Doktor. Die Herren trafen einander bei S.in 
Antonio in Alameda County und fochten mit 
Marinerevolvcrn auf sechs Schritt Entfer- 
nung; sie meinten es also ernst genug. Krug 
schoss Dr. Löhr den Daumen von der Pisto- 
lenliand und damit beruhigten sich die Gemü- 
ter. Etwas spater schlichteten Redakteure des 
San Francisco "Express" und des "Herald", 
die Herren Rust und Stidger, einen Ehren- 
handel mil einem kleinen lilutopfer, das iler 
Mann vnni "Herald" hergeben nuisste. 

Das hrachte die person Udieii Ziihammen 
■itowr zwischen San Franrisroer Zeitungshri 
AHigeheri\ und Schreibern untereinander oder 
mit riiclitjournalititibchen Ciegriern zum Ab- 
iwcldufcb, denn in den niichsteri Jahren traten 
Erci([nii*c von allgemeiner Wichtigkeit ein, 
dir nil lit wenig da/ii heilrugen, aus ji-iht 
btidt drr ungezüucllcn Ecidcuhi li.itit:ii i in 1 ic- 



meinwcsen von normalerem Zuschnitt zu ma- 
chen. Der Zustrom von wild erregten Gold- 
suchern liess nach und wurde durch die Zu- 
wanderung von ruhigen Elementen, Hand- 
werkern. Farmern, Aerzten, Rechtsanwälten 
und Geistlichen, ersetzt. Die Gerichte, die 
anfangs so krumm gewesen waren wie die 
Gassen von Yerba Buena, des ursprünglichen 
San Francisco, richteten sich auf und anstän- 
dige Männer wurden zu Richtern gewählt. 
Der Pony-Express, der neue telegraph ische 
Dienst und schnellere Schiffe brachten mehr 
Neuigkeiten aus der übrigen Welt, vor allen 
Dingen von der wachsenden Spannung zwi- 
schen dem Norden und Süden und einem dro- 
henden Bürgerkriege, so dass die Zeitungsher- 
ausgeber genug Stoff zum Füllen ihrer Spal- 
ten hatten, ohne zu persönlichen Angriffen 
greifen zu müssen. Mit dem Ausbruch des 
schweren Krieges zwischen Norden und Süden 
war die Pistole, die bis dahin immer noch ne- 
ben der Feder auf dem Redaktionstisch gelegen 
hatte, ver^ichwiindtn und mit ihr auch eine 



einzig dastehende Periode in der romantischen 
Geschichte des amerikanischen Journalismus. 



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929 Market Street 

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Telephones GArfield 7634 and 7625 

Men's, Ladies' and Children's 
FURNISHING GOODS 

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Franklin Hospital 

Telephon« UNderhiU 0350 

14th AND NOE STREETS 

San Franeiseo, Cai. 



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FAMILY TRADE A SPECIALTY 

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Phone MArket 5716 

375 Potrero Ave., near 17th St. 

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San Francisco's Most Modem Blue Printing and Photostat« Copying Plant 




Strecker Blue Print and I'hoto Copying: (\>. 

UI.IIF, l'ltlNTIN«J rilOTOSTVT *H>rVIN4i 

PHOTd LITHO RFIPRODUCTIONS 

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113 H^iY^om«) Strt>u% , 



l'|iofu< lMMl|[liw 'i'ia!* 



Im Walde der Oelbohrtuerme 

Von Diplom-Ingenieur LajOS StbiNER. 



r _- - l ALD sind die Hügel erreicht, die sich 
\m^ in einer langen Kette am Ufer des 
t|3?' Stillen Ozeans erheben; wir fahren 
^6 über eine Eisenbahnüberführung. 
E§^ dann an einem stillen Friedhof vor- 
bei über dessen Grabsteine und grÜnc Palmen- 
haine hinweg ein Wald von schwarzen Bohr- 
türmen emporragt. Die Strasse steigt an. und 
wir befinden uns inmitten dieser Wahrzeichen 
dieser hochentwickelten Erdölindustrie, die 
einen Grundpfeiler der Volkswirtschaft von 
California bildet. 

Bohrungen von über 10,000 Fuss Tiefe ge- 
hören nicht zu den Seltenheiten. Sind die 
oberen erdöUübrenden Schichten erschöpft, 
sucht man tiefere auf und erschliesst die in 
ihnen liegenden Schütze, um den Benzin- und 
Oeldurst der Millionen von Motoren zu stil- 
len. Vom Erdöl bis zum Benzin und Schmier- 
öl ist zwar ein weiter, an Gefahren und Hin- 
dernissen reicher Weg. der zunächst über hun- 
derte Meilen lange Rohrleitungen, die soge- 
nannten "pipe lines", dann über die russge- 
schwarzten Anlagen der Raffinerien führt. 
Doch der nie rastende, schaffende menschliche 
Geist überwindet alle Schwierigkeiten. 

Was das bedeutet, ein lotrechtes Loch von 
nahezu zwei englischen Meilen Länge durch 
Erdschichten herzustellen, die trotz der geolo- 
gischen Forschung mehr oder weniger unbe- 
kannt sind, kann ein Laie gar nicht ermessen. 
Die Formationen wechseln an Härte. Mäch- 
tigkeit und Neigung miteinander ab und bieten 
dem sie durchdringenden Meissel oft einen 
scheinbar unüberwindlichen Widerstand. Ge- 
waltige Kräfte sind erforderlich, um den Boh- 
rer durch das harte Gestein zu treiben, das 
Gefüge der Felsen zu lockern. Oft muss er 
kurz hintereinander hochgezogen werden, um 
ihn zu schärfen oder seine diamantharten 
Schneiden zu erneuern. Dauernd wird der 
herausgespülte Bohrschlamm beobachtet, und 
zeigen sich darin die ersten Oelspurcn, wird 
die Bohrung mit äusserstcr Vorsicht fortge- 
setzt. Vielfach haben plötzlich auftretende 
Gasausbrrüche das ganze schwere Bohrgestän- 
ge, wie Pulvergase ein Geschoss, hoch in die 
Luft geschleudert und durch Explosionen und 
Brände Menschenleben und Material vernich- 
tet. Es ist eif. schwieriges uml gefahrvolles 
Handwerk, das vom Bohrpersonal ausgeübt 
wird. 

Im -Anfang geht ilas Bohren verhältnis- 
mässig schnell vor sich. Täüliche Bohrforl- 
schritte von 7llO bis 1000 l*'uss kommen hüufig 
vor. Die Schwierigkeiten wachsen aber mit 
zunehmender Tiefe. Da ist die Einsturzge- 
fahr zu beseitigen, angeschlagene Wasseradern 
»ind abzudichten oder sonhligc Arbeiten aus- 
ziiführrn, di(; sich besonders dadurch schwie- 
rig gfsialun. u«il ihr Ort dem Auge verhör- 
gen bleibt. Der Bohrmeister niusLS dat. feine 
TutKffühl eine» Blinden haben, um zum Zirlr 
7,11 gfUnßen und im «egebfnei) Augenblick die 
Richtigen Vor kehr ungen zu treffen. Von sei- 
nrr Grwhirklirhkfit hängt in emter Linie dns 



GeUngen des Werkes ab. das bis zur Voll- 
endung Hunderttausende verschhng^. Dabei 
kann mit Sicherheit nie mit dem Erfolg ge- 
ebnet werden; mitunter werden die riesigen 
Geldbeträge unnütz vertan. Das Oelgescha t 
ist ein sehr risikoreiches, und nur grosse, kapi- 
talkräftige Gesellschaften können d.e.e rnanch^ 
mal ans Abenteuerliche grenzenden Aufgaben 
durchführen. An Aufregungen und spannen- 
den Momenten fehlt es eigentlich me, sie ge- 
ben aber auch dieser Industrie den besonderen 
Reiz. Eintönig wird die Arbeit nur, wenn be- 
sonders günstige Verhältnisse angetroffen wer- 
dene; die Natur sorgt aber dafür, dass das 
nicht allzu oft vorkommt. 

Immer tiefer und tiefer bohrt sich der 
Mei^scl durch die Schichten. Das Gestänge, 
an dem er hängt, gleitet durch den Bohrtisch. 
Zahnräder klappern. Ketten rasseln, der Turm 
zittert, die Wellblcchwände der Hütte schal- 
len von dem mannigfachen Geräusch wider. 
Trübe und dick fliesst der mit dem Bohrmehl 
vermischte Schlamm aus dem Bohrloch in die 
Klärgrube, von wo gewaltige Pumpen die 
Flüssigkeiten wieder aufsaugen und durch das 
Bohrgestänge bis unter den Meissel drücken. 
Die Motoren summen im hohen Ton, der 
schon von fem hörbar ist und ihre schwere 
Arbeit verrät. Da plötzlich ein Ruck, der 
Ton geht über eine chromatische Tonleiter in 
ein tiefes Brummen über ; ein starkes Zittern 
geht durch das Bohrgestänge und pfli-.nzt sich 
auf den Bahrtisch und auf die Fundamente 
fort: der Meissel ist auf einen Widere^and ge- 
stossen. der seine Bewegung nach unten 
hemmt. Es droht die Gefahr. Aass das Ge- 
stänge durch die Kraft des Motors und die le- 
dige Energie der Massen abgewürgt wird. 
Schnell wird der Motor stillgesetzt und die 
Trommel, die das Nachlasseil für den Bohrer 
aufnimmt, abgebremst. Nach einer kurzen 
Unterbrechung wird die Arbeit vorsichtig, 
gleichsam tastend fortgesetzt, bis das Gestänge 
verlängert oder der Bohrer hochgezogen wer- 
den muss. Dauernd ist die Aufmerksamkeit 
gespannt auf das Werk gerichtet, man hat 
keine Zeit, an etwas anderes zu denken. 

Die Arbeit des Bohrmeisters ist erst beendet, 
wenn die letzte taube Schicht, die über dem 
Erdöl lagert, durchschlagen wurde und die 
hocbvcrdichteten (^lase die Flüssigkeit durch 
das Loch in die Höhe schleudern. Sie wird 
an der Kuhi nüindiing durch ein System von 
dickwandig>-ri Leilimgeii und Ventilen abge- 
fangen und in Separatoren geleitet. Hier 
trennt ^ich das Oel vom (^a>. und beide durch- 
laufen ticn ihnen vorgeschriebenen W'cg vom 
Bohrloch bis zu den Sammelbehiiltcin, Dir 
gasförmigen und flüssigen Stoffe werden auf 
dieser Wanderung durch Grbläsc und Pumpen 
angetrieben, danüt sie nicht träge werden und 
ihrer Bewegung erlahmen. 

Reicht der in der Schicht herrschende Gas- 
druck nicht au>. die Flüuigkrit /u heben. Mt 
werden die oben ausströmenden (.jaae kün»t- 
lifb auf einen hohen Druck gebrath». in d« 



an »einer Mündung dicht abge*chl(ji*ene B*Ar- 
loch geleitet und gezwungen, die Hebarbeii 
zu verrichten. Da» Gelingen dies« Vo-fah- 
rcns ist an gcwisne VorauMctzungen geknüpft, 
die nicht immer erfüllt iind. Dann muM man 
7.11 anderen Mitteln greifen, welche geeignet 
sind, das Rohöl zutage zu fördern. Man be- 
dient sich dabei iler Tief pumpen, deren Kolben 
durch das am Ende tines Schwengel* hängende 
Gestänge auf und ab bc^vegt wird. In Cali- 
fornia ist dieses Wrfahrcn Kthr verbreitet und 
gibt den Feldern ihr cigcnartigei Auiwhen. 
Tag un<i Nacht Mnd diese Pumpen in Betrieb. 
Aechzend hebt und senkt sich der auf einetn 
festen Stützpunkt grlagerle, schwere hölzerne 
und eiserne Balken, und da* Oel fliesst un- 
unterbrochen aus dem Brunnen. 

Viele der auf den Oelfcldern verwendeten 
Maschinen haben bereits clektrLschcn Antrieb. 
Die Dampf ma.schincn werden immer mehr 
durch Elektromotoren verdrängt. Die elek- 
trische Energie wird durch kreuz und quer 
über die Felder gespannte kupferne Drähte 
verteilt. Die über Hügel und Täler laufen- 
den Rohrleitungen dienen nur noch der Foft- 
schaffung des Oeles uml de* Gases. Die 
Wasser- und Dampfrohrc verschwenden in 
dem Masse, wie sich die EIcktrizitit aus- 
breitet. 

Der Strom wird in grossen Wivwrkratt- 
anlagen erzeugt, die zu diesem Zweck dis G<- 
f.il!c der dem Meere zuströmenden Flüsse aus- 
nutzen, doch auch Wärmekraftwerke fehlen 
nicht. Das engmaschige Netz der an hohen 
Türmen und Gittermasten verlegten Hoch- 
spannungsleitungen i.st charakteristisch für 
das Land. "Do it electrically" — Ut ein in 
California oft gehörtes Schlag\vort. 

Ich steige über eine Leiter auf einen der 
hohen Bohrtuniie und schaue auf die Stätte 
der Arbeit und des Reichiunt» unter meinen 
Füssen herab. Fast unübersehbar ist der \> all 
der Bohrtünne, durch den die riesigen, mit 
metallischem Aluminium angestrichenen 
Tanks für die Lagerung des Rohhöb im 
Scheine der warmen »üdländischen Sonne glit- 
zern . Ihre Kuppeln senden Lichtstrahlen nach 
allen Richtungen, als ob sie von innen beleuch- 
tet wären. In der Ferne aber rauscht der 
Ozean und singt »ein ewiges L»cd. ^»«fi^ 
seine Gewaltigkeit erscheint di> n^"^ * "*"" 
feld und alle» das. was die Men«hen daraul 
geschaffen haben, als klein und mehlig. In 
einigen Jahrzehnten wird di> Land ein gaiu 
anderes Antlitz haben. Die lUvhriunne. d* 
Tanks werden verschwunden «rm. und «^^^ 
kann sagen, was an ihre Stelle »eten «.ui 
Alles Mensvheuweik Ut veigaiigUh. ble.bet*d 
ist mir die Naiur. und der iViv-in »nJ »ntrr 
briu»en und brüllen i»!er die icUip-" ^ "* 
liebk.>»end uimpulen. w.e \w emip-" '^'^'*" 
bei dei Krichaltung der Krde 



•MiltmtirH /)«//■(/ i'u« 
tiuf iurita t'trmiH übt' 
amtnkünu<k«r B-Mtkirr* ul • 

^1« Hfuktmuirt .4/»Am«. ä 



M- 



»^ 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



15 



German-American Savings Bank 

Bank macht trotz widriger Zeitläufte rapide Fortschritte; 
California kann mit Recht stolz sein auf Carl L. 
Schloessmann, den Präsidenten der German- 
American Bank of Los Angeles. 



W'iiliioiiil tlic-scj- Zeiten n irtsrlutftliclier Krisen und Spannung, Ja 
1 .'iiisciiiic VOM Hanken in .illfii Teilen der Vereinigten Staaten ihre 
liiren gc.sLlilo>scn haben, kann sich «las Dcutschanicrlkancrtiini im 
Midliclu-n California gliitkliih scliätzcn. dass es Herrn Carl L. 
Schlnessiiianfi, den fähigen und konservativen Präsitlenten der German- 
American ]Jank von Angeles, zu den Seinen zählen darf. 
Carl L. Schloessniann ist es ge- das CIcschäft der Bank rapide 
liinKcn, die von ihm geleitete Bank weiter entwickelt, so dass sie heute 



trotz der Depression zu einem der 
fnrtschrittlichsten und verlässlich- 
sten Finanzinstitutc des Landes zu 
machen. Absolute Sicherheit imd 
konservative Geschäftsführung 
-sind CS, die sich Herr Schloess- 
niann zum Leitfaden genommen 
hat mit dem Ergebnis, dass seine 
Bank für ihre Depositoren, Ak- 




CARL L SCHLOESSMANN 

Präsident der 

German-American Bank 

tionäre und Beamten als "10(1 per 
cent efficient' anzusprechen ist, 

Nacli monatelangen Bemühun- 
gen, einen günstigen Platz zu fin- 
den, der ilir im Verein mit kom- 
petenter Geschäftsführung den ge- 
wunsclitcn Erfolg gewährleisten 
würde, öffnete diese Bank am IS. 
März 1927 zum ersten Mal ihre 
Tore und zwar an 8. und Spring 
Slrashc in Los Angeles. Die Lage 
im Finanzdistrikt war ausseror- 
dentlich günstig gewählt und 
inüclilr die Hank auch fiii die 
Kundrii aiiN iirn l^is Anudrs um 
grhcnden (JrHihaftm bequem und 
Iricht erreichbar 

Viele prominente Deutschameri- 
kaner auK allen Teilen des ȟd- 
lichtn California waren bei der 
Ktoffnuni: der Bank vor fünf 
Jahren zugegen und eröffneten 
Konto in ihr. Seitdem hat »ich 



ungeachtet der Depression einen 
Surplus und Resourcen von $lll(l,- 
OOU.ÜOO besitzt. Dies ist nicht 
zuletzt der zielsicheren Fühnmg 
des Herrn Schloessman und der 
harmonischen Zusammenarbeit al- 
ler Beamten und Angestellten zu 
verdanken. Sie alle verdienen 
höchste Anerkennung dafür, dass 
sie auf diese Weise eine Bank ge- 
schaffen haben, der man mit voll- 
ster Gewissheit sein Geld anver- 
rr.iucn kann, denn man weiss, dass 
man es auf Verlangen jederzeit 
>.'. ii-iler zurückerhalten kann. 

Während der ersten zehn Tage 
nach der Eröffnung der Bank be- 
licfen sich die Depositen auf $1,- 
IH)II,(H)(). Inzwischen hat das 
Deuischamerikanertum von Süd- 
California dies auf eine neunstel- 
lige Zahl anwachsen lassen. Die 
Direktoren der Bank sind solide 
und charakterstarke Männer, mit 
nur einer Ausnahme prominente 
Deutschamerikaner, die sich als 
amerikanische Bürger allenthalben 
, der grössten Hochachtung und 
\VcrtschätzunK erfreuen. Ihre Na- 
men sind: H. M. Kleinbach. C. R. 
Besser, ^Villiam Falkenstein, F.mil 
Holtz, Eduard Stuetz, C. H. von 
Breton, August von Handorf, E. 
Zitzman, H. L. Heffner und B. 
A. Walter. 

Herr Philip A. Kuhn, der Se- 
kretär der Bank, gehört ihrem 
Stabe bereits seit dem Tage ihrer 
Eröffnung an. Er ist unter den 
Deutschamerikanern von Los An- 
geles bestens bekannt und spielt 
auch im dortigen Vereinsleben 
eine beträchtliche Rolle. Charles 
1 . Schiras, der Kassierer, ist einer 
der fähigsten Bankbeamten im 
siiillichen California, dem lang- 
jahriue Erfahrung hei der Erb' 
digijng jcincT I'iliihlcn /.ur Snti 
*tehf. 

Eduard Stuetz erfreut sitli als 
Herausgeber der ,, California 
Staatiizeitung" in Los Angeles be- 
iondercr Prominenz unter dem 
Deuischamerikanertum des süd- 
{Schluss auf Seite 72) 



Was ist Astrologie? 

EINE aliumtassende Beantwnr- tische Anwendung 
tung dieser Frage würde 
zweifellos ein umfangreiches ge- 
drucktes Werk beanspruchen, ei- 
nem Studenten der Astrologie ist 




es jedoch 
nach mehr 
.lis dreissig- 
jährigen Be- 
obachtungen 
gelungen, die 
Erklärung in 
die folgende 
kondensierte 
Form zu 
bringen: 
...Istrofogie 
ist /lit' If'is- 



zu vercm- 
fachen. Unter seinen bekanntesten 
Publikationen befindet sich das 
"Astrological Bullctina", ein vier- 
teljährliches Magazin, das jetzt in 
seinem 24. Jahre besteht und mit 
Recht als "Your Astrological 
Daily Adviser" bezeichnet werden 
kann. Es wird von Tausenden 
in der ganzen Welt gelesen und 
benutzt; ja, viele Abonnenten er- 
klären, dass sie lieber eine Mahl- 
zeit versäumen würden, als ein 
Exemplar des "Bulletina". Ein 
weiteres praktisches Werk rst das 
"Moon's Sign Book", das seit 
I9nri jährlich herausgegeben 
wird. Es ist ein "Planetary DaJ- 



p.±hT,"^m .?"7^ ^•''"^''"/'' ''»'^ ly C^ulde" für alle, ein astrologi- 
Prealdenl, National As-_ ^ ; „ , „.,/ . _ ^ 

trolofflcal Asaoi-ftitlon, z e t ff r, auj 

welche Wei- 



te das Mensilienltbeu auf plane- 
tare J'ibrationen reagiert." 

Die Rinktiaiirn des Meiiseheri- 
lehens! Welche Unmenge der 
Gefühle liegt in diesen vier "Wor- 
ten ! Freude. Trauer, Liebe. Hass, 
Habsucht, Wollust, Verbrechen, 
Philantropie, Treue, Verrat, Frie- 
den. Krieg — alle entstehen aus 
unseren Reaktionen zu den Um- 
ständen des Lebens, L^nd was 
verursacht die variierenden Um- 
stände des Lebens? 

Jedes der zwölf Zeichen des 
Tierkreises besitzt seine eigenen 
distinktiven Qualitäten, die bei 
unserer Geburt auf uns übertra- 
gen werden. Die Astrologie ba- 
siert auf strikt mathematischen 
Prinzipien der Astronomie und 
man kann sie sich nicht durch das 
oberflächliche Lesen zweifelhafter 
Publikationen aneignen; schürfen- 
des Studium verlässlicher Text- 
bücher ist notwendig. Die Posi- 
tionen und Aspekte der Planeten 
zur Zeit der Geburt eines Men- 
schen werden (wenn sie von einem 



scbes Jahrbuch, das die Mond- 
phasen und Zeichen enthält, fer- 
ner Tabellen zum Pflanzen und 
\iele andere praktische Winke für 
den täglichen Gebrauch. Es ist 
eine u-ohlbckanntc Tatsache, dass 
die alten Agrikulturisten in den 
Tälern des Euphrat und des Nil 
ihre Pflanzungen unter strikter 
Beobachtung der Mondphasen 
und Tierkreis-Zeichen vornahmen 
und hierauf ihre ausgezeichneten 
Erfolge zurückführten. 

Die Nachfrage nach diesen ver- 
l.Hsslichen und interessanten Pu- 
blikationen ist so gross, dass die 
Druckpressen ständig in Bewe- 
gung sind, um Literatur zu pro- 
duzieren, die Astrologie in der 
einfachsten Weise erläutert, ohne 
von ihrer wissenschaftlichen Basis 
abzudeichen. 

"Astro-Analysis", ein Buch von 
196 Seiten über "Vocational Gui- 
dance", "How Planets .\ffcct 
You" und "The A to Z Horo- 
scope Maker and Delineator", ein 
Textbuch von 650 Seiten, gehören 
zu den weiteren wohlbekannten 
Büchern Llewellyn Georges, nach 



(lualifiziertcn Astrologen richtig denen grosse Nachfrage herrscht. 



kalkuliert werden) die natürlichen 
Neigungen des betreffenden Indi- 
viduums offenbaren. Ein Horo- 
skop kann nicht ohne den Tag, 
den Monat, das Jahr, die Zeit 
urul den Ort der Geburt kalku- 
liert werden. Irgend eine horo- 
skopische Deutung, die sich ohne 
diese notwendigen O.iteii als Ho 
roskop ausgibt, isl kein llinoskop. 
Llrwellyn ( ienigp. iler Piä^i- 
dent (W\ Nalioiidl .'Vstrnlogual 
Association und überall In den 
Vereinigten Staaten sowie im Aus- 
lände bestens bekannt, hat seine 
Zeit darauf verwandt, seine 
Kenntnis der planetarcn drsetre 
zu vervollkiiinmnn» und' die Rt- 



Sie sind so gehalten, ilass es einem 
jeden möglich ist, sich die in ihnen 
enthaltene wertvolle Informaliüii 
leicht anzueignen und zunutze zu 
machen. 

Was ist Astrolii(/i(f Eine 2c- 
Freimarke wird Ihnen die Ant- 
wort in Gestalt eines Büchlein'- 
hringeii, welches den Titel trügt 
".hti»lr>^\ — li hat ft h and 
11 hat It h SOr. l.a^M-n Sir 
kriiien weiirrrti 'I jg vrigrhrn. 
ohne dieses \\ert\ollr Ruchlein ru 
besitzen. Senden Sie Ihren Na- 
men und Ihre Adresse deutlich 
geschrieben an dir LLEWEL- 
LYN PUBLISHING COMPA- 
NY', *f''^'l Nuionjl Boulevard 



(»ein der .Astrologie fiir ihre prak-. Palms, Los Angele», California. 



16 



CALIFORNIAJOURNALHISTO^^L^NNU^ 



San Francisco 



's Popular Priced Hotels! 




New tj.iKiun Siatc Hotel 
ElliB and Powell Sts. 

_ RATES — 

With Private Shower 

Attractive Suite«. -. 5-00 to 6.00 
Free Garage 



NEW GOLDEN STATE HOTEL 

Ellis nnd Powell Streets 

THE CONTINENTAL HOTEL 

127 Ellis Street, at Powell 

THE ALTA HOTEL 

165 Third Street 

THE CIVIC CENTER HOTEL 

Twelfth and Market Streets 

THE AMERICAN HOTEL 

718 Howard Street 

We have one rate for e«;yb°i'yv"c"rowSed11^s'''we'w%'nt "^^^^^^ 

^fse them during ""«"''°"f,°: ^^d we try " deserve your patror,age. 

Hotel to be your stopplng place ano "c j 

Joseph Tremontan, Proprietor 
Free Bus to and from hotel, including all hand baggrage. 




The Continental Hotel 

ElUs at Powell 8L 

A Tourliil »Ji'l Family Hotel 

— RATES — 

$1,00 per da/ and up. 

12.00 with Bath. 

Free Bub Service. 
Free Garage 



f 




I'he Alta Hotel 
165 Third St. 
Popular Prices 



Wc offer you at the Golden State and 
Continental all the comfort luxury, 
service and refinement to be found in 
America's finest hotels. There has been 
nothing overlooked for your complete 
satisfaction. We cannot bring our 
goods to your door for inspection. We 
must ask you to have confidence in 
our statement that we offer you the 
Greatest Hotel Value in America. 
Picture, please, a quiet sun-lit room 




The 

American Hotel 

718 Howard St. 

Popular Prices 



beautifully decorated, the best bed you 
ever slept on. a comfortable Inunging 
chair, writing desk, lights, drapes, rich 
finor coverings all harmonizing. Ixwk 
out your windows at the Emporium. 
San Francisco's largest department 
store. Come to the Golden St-Tto 
Hotel. Opened in 1927. it is an out- 
standing specimen of the newest hotel 
construction. 




The Ci%ic Center Hotel 

12tb and Market Sts. 

Populiir Pnetm 



JOSEPH TRESMONTAN'S PHENOMINAL RISE IN THE HOTEL BUSINESS 



One of the largest groups of hotels in San Francisco is that under 
the ownership and management of Joseph Tresmontan, who has had 
more than a quarter of a century experience in catering to the public. 
Mr. Tresmontan now operates five hotels, all centrally located in 
downtown San Francisco, with a total accommoda- 
tion for the public of 950 rooms. Every degree ot 
hotel service is offered iri these hospitable stopping 
places. 

The present accommodations of 950 rooms, in five 
hotels, has grown in 22 years from Mr. Trcsmon- 
tan's initial venture in 191(1, when he started with 
a small hostelry of 55 rooms. Constant expansion 
in the acquisition of more and better hotels, cater- 
ing every year to a larger and larger number of 
travelers, has resulted from his close and personal 
attention to the comfort of his guests. 

This steady and persistent growth of Mr. 'I>es- 
monlan'» business offers its own proof of tlic excel- 
lence of the service found in his hotels. 

Mr. Tresmontan, himself, credits his success to 
the maxims of "hard work" and "a square deal," 
which he adopted as his code in conducting enter- 
prise» catering to the public. By hard work, and 
hard work alone, he belirvr«, can the hotel owner 




Joseph Tresmontan 

he sure that no item of service to the nistomer is ovrrlonkeil, A 
aquare He.il to the linti-l gue^t. arrnrdiiiu tn Mr. Trc.smontan'>. idea, 
comistfc of the greaicit amount of service at the lowest possible price. 

AH of Mf. Tresmontan's hotels .ire frirndly hotrU v^hiTP thr 
traveler findi friendly clerks, bell boy», elevator oprritori, «nd maid», 



always anxious to serve and make the guest comfortable and at home. 

Mr. Trcsmontan's five hotels are the Golden Gate, at Powell and 

Ellis streets; the Continental. 127 Ellis street, near Powell; the Aln. 

UÖ 'I'hird street; the Civic Center. Twelfth and Market streets, 

and the American. 718 Howarii street. -Any da* 

of accommodation piay be found in thes* tin« w»" 

triries. and rooms in any one of the five arc pncw 

most reasonably. 

The Golden State Hotel has a strategic ctninl 
downtown location, one block from Market street. 
and within easy walking distance of theaters VM 
restaurants. It has luna been a favored location w 
convention headquarter* by many ol the urgam'-' 
tions holding sessions in San Krancmo. 

The Continental Hotel, halt a blixk iron» i»w 
(lolden State, is equ.tllv »ell kiH)\ui n 
Fur many years it \vx>t noted a» iheatrici! 
tcrs, where stage star» liveJ and nwt while pn'*' 
ing in San Franctsoi. 

The Alta, Civic Center, aikl American Ho«» 
ofJer the )ine*t iy|>e of ierMie at evttmiel* m»**"** 
costs, and are dcMrvedly well knu^tn. 

The «ory of Mr. Ti«w«tu»un's hotel* w»«'^ ** 
be complrlr without a picture ot ' 
and niaiiager, French bv biiih. Mr 



llieii iiw nei 

grated In America and k dine in ^'^htKi 
year». His story of progre» »ince (hen 
fully hv preservation and unlaitrnni; -. 
net toi himarlt in older lu .tutccd. .-Vn-i 
ing way. 



S*J 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



17 



^The keys of the City , 
await you at OAKLAND 




OokUin.Vs $2.onomn 

illy tuil! is seen in the 
ii"}' rinrj anil hetotv it 
llif Oakland Judilor- 
iiiiii. T li (■ pannriima 
flinici the lily's skyline 
I'f'iking arross Lake 
Merrill. 



OAKLAND, 

Industrial City Beautiful 



By Oakland Chamber of Commerce 




I 



Oakland's Municipal Auditorium 
<t"mjri CAPITAN! We have discovered a 

■i-'A brazo del mar, with fair and green 
coast on its farther shore. It's another Medit- 
terranean !" 

Sergeant Ortega, redoubtable scout of Don 
Caspar de Portola, governor of Lower Cali- 
fornia, n|ade that report 162 years ago to Don 
Caspar on a November day when he returned 
from having viewed San Francisco Ray and the 
"green coast" on the "Contra Costa" or op- 
posite shore which is now occupied by Oakland 
and its neighboring cities. He and his party 
were the first white men to view any part of 
that beautiful area and the discovery was pure- 
ly accidental as Portola had set out from San 
Diego on an expedition to locate Monterey Bay, 
discovered in 1602 by Sebitstian Viscaino. 

The first white men to actually enter the 
territory were Lieutenant Fage4i of Portola's 
staff, and Father Crespi who visited it in 1772 
and explored the East Oakland and Berkeley 
hills. Lieutenant Juan Manuel Ayala sailed 
into San Francisco harbor in the San Carlos in 
1775 and looked across at its verdant shores 
and a year later, just after the Liberty Hell wrn, 
ringing in Philadelphia, Jose Joaquin Moraga. 
a sergeant of Colonel Juan Bautista de Anza, 
led a party into the Moraßa valley wliich is 
now chiefly noted as the home of St. Mary's 
College. Colonel An/.a was cstablisliing a mil- 
itary pfrtt in San Francisco at the »iimr time, 
and the developnient of the great Bay area was 
under way. 



Setlleriit-nt Btijiin 



Spanish government wheels turned slowly 
in those days, and it was not until 1797, when 
Mission de Guadalupe was founded, that the 
padres and pioneers attempted to carve a civ- 
ilization from the wilderness which covered 
this vast area. 

For years, the friars worked patiently with 
the Indians whom they found inhabiting this 
section, military men kept an eye on the new- 
found harbor, pioneers turned the vast acres 
into grazing land for their cattle, and life was 
a tranquil, unhurried, luxurious, if somewhat 
crude and elemental affair. 

In 1820, Don Pablo \'inccnt de Sola, gov- 
ernor of California, granted to Sergeant Luis 
Maria Peralta 44,800 acres which included 
the land now occupied by Oakland, Alameda, 
Berkeley, Piedmont, Albany and part of San 
Leandro, and two years later the Don gave 
the present site of the city of (Oakland to his 
two sons, Antonio and Vicente. 

It was inevitable that a land of such rich- 
ness should attract early attention, and it was 
only a Mttle while after the influx of Ameri- 
cans and others who came to San Francisco in 
the late forties until the interest of the ag- 
gressive newcomers was directed to this ver- 
dant and almost virgin shore. 

The little village of San Francisco burned 
several times, and to get lumber for rebuilding 
men went out into the hills beyond the Per- 
alta lands and felled the redwoods. By IS5(I 
a considerable industry bad sprung up and it 
is from that year that the history of Oakland 
really dates. 

Tuun liiivi fxtra/eil 

In 1852, the little settlement thus pictur- 
esquely begun, had one hundred inliabitants, 
and on May 4 of that year the town of Con- 
tra Costa, settle<l two years before, was in- 
corporated by the State Legislature as the 
Tfuvii of Oakland. Immediately after its in- 



corporation, the entire Oakland waterfront 
was granted to H. W. Carpentier by the town 
trustees in exchange for the building of a one- 
room public school house and three wharves, 
one of which was to be at least 20 feet wide. 
The school was built at a cost of about $1000 
and was located at Clay and Fourth streets. 

It took years of litigation to win back the 
waterfront for the city and it was not until 
1910 that she regained full rights, after half 
a century of lawsuits costing millions of dol- 
lars. 

In 1853 the College School, with Henry 
Durant as principal, was established in a rent- 
ed room on Fifth street near Broadway. It 
had a class of three pupils. The school, plant- 
ed in the Oakland forests, has grown and de- 
veloped into the University of California. 

In 1854, Oakland was incorporated as a 
city. Three hundred and sixty-eight votes 
were cast at the first election after the grant- 
ing of the charter, and Horace W. Carpentier 
was elected mayor. Ten years later. Oakland 
ranked thirty-first in the list of principal 
towns of California with a population of 
1450. The first westbound transcontinental 
train entered Oakland on the Central Pacific 
Railroad, sixty-two years ago. in 1S69. and 
Mills College, now the outstanding school for 
women in the West, was opened in Oakland 
(lO years ago. 

The first street paving was laid in Oak- 
land in 1864 on a small portion of Broadway, 
its main street, at a cost of $3. IS per foot, 
and in ISbO Dr. Samuel Mcrritt. then mayor, 
w rote into his annual mevsage the information 
that "A dam has been construclrd near the 
Oakland Bridge, at a citel of at least $JU.01HI. 
converting the arm of San Antonio Crerk. 
north of the bridge, into a hcaxitiful lake." 
That lake is now l.ukr Merritt, the only tidal 
body of water in the heart ol any Americtn 
city and one of the mo»t picluresiiiie in the 
United State». 



IS 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



Jit'totnes intluitrial (Jenlcr 
Known for many years as a residential city. 
Oakland began to emerge as an industrial and 
seaport center about two decades ago, that 
development beginning after tlic San Francisco 
fire in iPOfi. Its climatic, economic and man- 
ufacturing advantages began to be known and 
it launclu'd into a period uf growth that is 
almost unparalleled in the state. 

imbued with the progressive industrial and 
commercial sjiirit that is typically Californian, 
Oakland has builded well on its geographic 
and natural advantages and today it stands on 
the continental side of San Francisco Bay 
with a harbor gateway to the markets of the 
world, a network of railways sending their 
steel trails to every city in the nation, a back 
countrj' of great agricultural wealth, a site 
on which it has built the nation's finest air- 
port, and is situated at the crossroads of all 
the great highways of the West 

Up in the hills on Sky- 
line Boulevard, a stone 
marker rises on an emin- 
ence not far from Joaquin 
Miller's old home, as a 
remembrance of the time 
when (General John. C 
Fremont stood on that 
spot in 1846, saw the sun 
set in all its glory acrois 
the narrow opening of the 
harbor beyond, and named 
the Golden Gate. And 
scattered here and lliere 
in the same section are a 
few patriarchal sequoia:;, 
or redwoods, that are sur 
vivors of their brelhrcn of 
so long ago. 

Km- Rfplfjcfs Ol.l 
These are the only re- 
minders of the old Span- 
ish days, for Oakland is 
now a bustling, modern, 
aggressive municipality with towering office 
buildings, broad streets, picturesque parks, 
schools, churches and homes. Tlie old "arm 
of San Antonio Creek" is now beautiful Lake 
Merritt and the rickety wharf from which 
the settlers used to load hides, horns and tal- 
low onto sailing vessels, is now marked by a 
stately Embarcadero. with vine-covered pil- 
lard. The trail of the padres over the hdls 
from Sail Jose Mission is now Foothill tioule- 
vard, one of the main arteries out of the city. 
The old College School is now the great Uni- 
versity of California, and the harbor which 
once was controlled by Carpeiiticr is now bu>v 
with cxporl and import dealings with the mar- 
ket» of the world, industrially, it offers much, 
iu immediate tra<le area being all of that ter- 
ritory w«.l of the Kocky Mountains with a 
population of more than 12.600,000— a per 
capita purchasing power larger than any other 
trction in the world. 

Oakland i> inimediatidy adjacent tu a piijiu 
Ution of approximately 1,600,000 pcrwn» in 
tlic San Krancikco Bay district and lioldk a par- 



ticularly commanding position with relation to 
the Pacific Coast and border states of Califor- 
nia, Washington, Oregon, Arizona and New 
Mexico with a population of 9,441.100. Close 
by are the thickly populated and rich valleys 
of the Sacramento, San Joaquin, Sonoma and 
Santa Clara, California's choicest agricultural 
ilistricts with a total of 1,388,000 residents, 
within the East Bay district comprising Oak- 
land and surroundnig territory, 25 canneries 
pack a great share of the fruits and vegetables 
produced in this region, and Oakland's ter- 
minals send them out to all parts of the world. 

Industrial Importance 
More than 125 national industrial organiza- 
tions have Pacific Coast factories In the East 
Hay district, and Oakland today has 1500 in- 
dustrial plants employing 48,000 persons year- 
ly, with an annual payroll of $66,000,000. 
The yearly output of these plants is valued at 
S 500, 000, 000. 




Oaklaiid'i UnparaUfleä .Hrport 

Excellent transportation facilities, rail, 
highway and water, and an efficient working 
climate that acts as an aid to low production 
costs, have greatly facilitated the city's indus- 
trial expansion. Forty-two per cent of Oak- 
land's laboring men own their own homes, 
and skilled labor in this area I's almost 100 
per cent white. Good living conditions tend 
to produce a high type of labor and the aver- 
age earning of an industrial worker In Oak- 
land has been computed to be considerably 
higher than In other cities. 

Oakland has been called the "industrial city 
beautiful" because, »ith all of Its industrial 
a.lvantages, it docs not lack scenic beauty to 
attract tourists and visitors. A wealth of m- 
tfrest and lure centers around Lake Merritt, 
sparkling like a great jewel in the diadem of 
the city's panorama. Sequoia Park and the 
Skyline Boulevard looking down from the 
fn..,|,ilU of the city. Chabot Observatory, the 
largest municipal one in the world, and the 
$i.(JUO.OUO city hall towering over the cty s 
skyline. 



S.cnu H'efllth ,^.^^^^ 

Driving through the George A- I'"«^> 
which connects Oakland and Aalameda -d 
the inner harbor and Is the largest subaq-^ 
precast vehicular tube in the worlri, rn 

» « »< *e -v;s p™"^-,f,r:rb,;*'. 

Oakland Municipal Airport. It ■« "^ 
where the commercial travel lanes 
hemispheres meet and is the log-cal center for 
Pacific Coast air commerce. Five ^^'^^^ ^^^ 
gars house the giant planes that fly to ■ «^^ 
York, Chicago. Los Angeles, Seattle and in- 
termediate points, carrying mail and passen- 
gers. Daring pioneers have already blazed the 
air trail across the Pacific, starting their flight 
from the Oakland airport. The great air- 
field has the only exclusive airport mn m 
America, a restaurant, spacious administration 
building in which is located the U. S- Weather 
Bureau, a hospital equipped to handle emer- 
gency cases, sleeping quarters for pilots, offices 
of the field supermtend- 
ent, and waiting rooms for 
passengers, in hangar No. 
5 is located one of the 
largest and best-equipped 
aeronautical schools in the 
country. 

No matter how strong 
its business, industrial and 
zommercial life, no Ameri- 
can city can continue to 
grow and prosper unless it 
prepares for the future. 
Oakland is doing this by 
giving its youth the finest 
educational institutions 
that can be maintained, 
erecting splendid churches, 
keeping up parks, mu- 
seums, swimming pools 
and playgrounds, it ha> 
I^Kl churches, 628 .icres of 
playgrounds and parks, 53 
elementarj' schools, twelve 
junior high schools and 10 high schools. 1 he 
famous University of California, with one ot 
the largest enrollments in America, is within 
30 minutes of downtown Oakland. Mills 
College, largest girls' school in the West, is 
in the heart of Oakland. Stanford Univer- 
sity at Palo .Mto, and Santa Clara University 
at Santa Clara, .ire both within a radius of 
50 miles of Oakland, while St. Mary's College 
is just outside the city. 

Do you want to see Yosemite, Lake Tahoe. 
Sacramento River, Mt. Diablo, Mission San 
Jose, the Mother Lode country? (.Oakland is 
the largest city close to these points and i$ in 
fact tlie continental metropolis of central Cali- 
fornia for trips to these and score* of other 
interesting beauty spots of the Golden State. 
Do you seek recreation? Oakland offer» beau 
tiful golf and country clubs, tennii court», 
bowling greens, parks, beaches, ritir ran«». 
archery ranges, footb-ill games in ih« nrarby 
California Memorial Stadium, ba&kctball 
hockey, and crew races in its estuary and uii 
Lake Merritt. This year the natiuiiil „m 
board motorboat races were held n« 1 ^i^. 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORTCAT. ANNUAL 



19 



Mcrntt, the national motorcycle hill climbing championships were held 
on a steep hill just off Foothill Boulevard. an<I a nnv automobile 
racing track was opened bctuecn Oakland and San Lcandro. 

Oakland lies in the heart of California's magic wonderland; it has 
(•stabhshed Itself industrially, its reputation as a city of beautiful homes 
IN knoun throughout the West, its opportunities for expansion arc 
limitless. 

Nature has given it an un|)aralleled climate, a strategic geographical 
hHatiun. and its citizenry is uide-auake aggressive, and lr»yal. 

The history of Oakland and the East Bay Section begins with the 
explorations of the Missionary and military expedition« sent out from 
Mexico under the banner of Spain about the year 1770. These expe- 
ditions resulted in the establishment of a chain of Missions of which 
the Mission San Jose dc Guadelnpe, located on the east shores of San 
Francisco Bay, was one. From the time of the establishment of this 
Mission until about the year 1820 this great East Bay area was a 



HAYWARDS 

"Heart of the Garden of Eden" 

Hay^vard. Calif., Alt. 15; pop. 550(1: area. I square mile. 

Surrounding territory within three miles radius has appr..viniately 
2xim mhabitants. Reached by bus or street car from Oakland 
through 12 miles of thickly settled metropolitan area. Situated close 
to the shores of San Francisco B.iy an<l extending back through rolling 
foothills and many fertile valleys. The enthusiasm of residents has 
bestowed the name "Heart of the Garden of Eden," since it is situated 
in Eden Township. More than 30 outlying district community im- 
provement clubs, which cooperate through a Southern Alameda County 
Federation, show an aggressive, enteri-rising community spirit. Located 
in what was once the Rancho de San Lorenzo, the city is eloquent with 



Ca^J 




Looking tou-ard San Fran- 
cisco Bay with the Golden 
Gate in the background. Lake 
Mcrritt is dominant in the 
ctnter of the vieiv and the 
business section of the city 
lies just behind it. At the ex- 
treme left is the Auditorium, 
in the center on the shores is 
the Scottish Rite Temple and 
the tallest structure in the 
business district is the city 
hall. 



grazing ground for the comitless herds of cattle owned by the Mis- 
sionary Friars. About this time, Louis Maria Peralta, who marched 
into California with the troops of the King of Spain in 1776, was 
made the owner of the present site of the City of Oakland. He re- 
ceived it as a grant from the Spanish Crown on August 16, 1820. 

In 1842 Peralta divided his rancho San Antonio, as it was called 
into four parts, giving to each of his sons a quarter of the estate. Im- 
mediately after receiving their heritage Vincente and Antonio Maria, 
the two brothers who owned the part of the area now occupied by 
Oakland, established themselves on their new ranches, and soon after, 
other grants, this time from the Mexican Government, brought the 
two brothers other Spanish neighbors. Then signs of Oakland streets 
began to appear in the form of roads from one rancho to another. 

Moses, Chase, who leased holdings from one of the Peralta brothers 
in 1850. was the first American citizen of the future city of Oakland. 
Close on his heels came a horde of squatters drawn to California by 
the gold rush of IK49. Two years later a nameless village had come 
ifito existence on ihe site now occupied hy Oaklaml. At the session of 
the Irgi^hiture of 1852 tin's was incorporated under its present name. 

The i.andy peninsula was covered by a dense growth of oak trees, 
which »ubicquently gave to the place its name, and beneath the trees 
were numerous thickets of chapparal and tangled underbrush. Some 
four mile» to the north wa* the residence of Vicente Peralta. and 
around it were wttled a few other native Californiaris. The only use 
made of the Peninmla of Oakland was to obtain from it the necessary 
Continued on Page 20 



c^aj«^ 



Spanish history. 'Ihe new ;^125,n(K) City Hall stands on the former 
site of the hacienda of General Guillermo Castro. A Veterans' Mem- 
orial Building costing $100,000 has just been completed. There is a 
high schoo' evaluated at $1,500,000, 15 grade schools, nine churches, 
two largt banks, a municipally owned water system, and every street 
u'ithin the city limits is paved and well lighted. Floriculture is rap- 
idly becoming a $20,000,001) industry in this vicinity. Over 4.500,000 
square feet of green houses produce more than $10,000,000 annually. 
The world's largest pigeon lofts are located here. Five thousand cold 
storage squabs are shipped East each week. It is the second largest 
poultry center in California; sales of eggs and poultrj- total more than 
$7,Si)0,000. The poultry cooperative profit sliaring organization, with 
1160 members does an annual business of approximately $1,250.000. 
"King of America," the highest award for leghorns, is held by a Ioc.il 
iioultry man. 

Several large caimeries and packing plants are to he found in the 
district. Apricots, peaches, pears and cherries are the staple fruit cro|»s. 
Rhubarb, tomatoes and early peas, with most every garden vegetable 
comprise an extensive agricultural industry. The dairy industry alone 
was worth $6,000,000 to the community last year. Rabbit and duck 
raising arc rapidly developing into an important means of revenue for 
the small home owner. ']"he longest bridge in the world connects 
ILiyward with San Mateo nearly eight miles away across San Fran- 
cisco Bay. The woild's fastest dirt speedway and the annual nxleti 
arc national attractions. Favored by a year round equable chnute 
makes Mayvvard an ideal home city. 



20 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



OAKLAND, 

CITY BEAUTIFUL 



Continued from Page 19 



supplies of fuel. At sonic remote period there 
had been Indian camps upon the northern 
hanks of the San Antonio Creek, and the 
mounds, composed mainly of oyster sliells arc 
not yet entirely obliterated. San Pablo was a 
flourishing mission and San Antonio ( now 
Brooklyn Township) was a town before there 
was a solitary settler in Oakland. Indeed for 
a year or two after the settlement of Oakland, 
San Antonio was in advance. It bad formerly 
been an embarcadero from which were shipped 
the hides and horns collected in the adjoining 
country. 

The first settlement was in 1851, and the 
original inhabitants were H. W. Carpentier, 
Edson Adams and A. J. Moon. By these per- 
sons the land was taken in possession, and 
through their efforts public attention was first 
drawn to the location. Charles Minturn be- 
came interested with them, and placed upon 
the San Antonio Creek a steamboat that was 
ample to accommodate the business between 
Oakland and San Francisco. The town, in 
1852, had no local business and no means of 
self support. On account of the pleasantness 
of the trip over the bay and the delightful 
groves, numerous visitors were attracted and 
a few gentlemen of means soon purchased land 
upon which they erected dwelling houses. At 
this early date the present condition of the city 
was foreshadowed. It was a suburban resort. 
There were but few people in the place in 
1852, but enough to require a public school 
and a city wharf. The Act of Incorporation 
vested in the Town Trustees the power to 
make these improvements, and also the right 
to dispose of the water front, which in the 
same act was ceded by the State to the city. 

The first Board of Trustees, consi-sting of 
A. W. Barrell, A. J. Moon, Edson Adams 
and A. Maricr, { H. W. Carpentier was elect- 
ed, but failed to qualify) by a series of acts 
transferred to H. W. Carpentier the title to 
the waterfront, in return for which he was to 
erect a public school and build a wharf at the 
foot of Broadway, the latter to cost twenty 
thousand dollars. The subsequent history of 
this transaction furnishes an example of the 
most persistent and interesting litigation that 
can be found in the records of the several 
courts. 

For two years following, the to«n cont- 
tinucd to grow and became a center of trade 
for the Mexicans hving in the adjoining coun- 
try. 'i"he land* in the Oakland Valley were 
brought under cultivation and considerable 
quüntilics of produce were exported. 

In the «pring of the year 185.3, the Oakland 
College School Willi rslablished by Rev. Henry 
Duraiit, who later became Prcüident of the 
University of California. A frame buildinj; 
on the northfiuf corner of Broadway and Fifth 
Street», llui lud l"*ii jinrtr In llut used as -i 



hotel, was rented, and President Durant com- 
menced teaching school with a class of three 
pupils. This school, planted in the Oakland 
forests in I85.i, has grown and expanded and 
has at last been developed into the University 
of California, the peer of any institution of 
learning in America. The establishment of the 
school was not a private enterprise, undertaken 
for pecuniary purposes. It was the result of a 
correspondence commenced as early as 1840, 
upon the founding of a college, and it was 
with that purpose in view that President 
Durant made his humble beginning. 

March 25, 1854, a charter was granted for 
the "City of Oakland," (this has been revised 
several times since, the last revision being July 
1, 1 93 1) and a fresh Impulse was given to 
public affairs. Three hundred and sixty-eight 
votes were cast at the first election after the 
granting of the charter, and Horace W. Car- 
pentier »as elected Mayor. The people of 
Oakland even then entertained very lofty 
ideas about the prospective importance of the 
place, and in his first message, the Mayor gave 
It as his opinion that the transcontinental rail- 
road, that then seemed to be so far off. must 
terminate here. A newspaper called the Ala- 
meda Express was at that time published in 
Oakland, and in its columns can be found the 
message In full. There was a Fire Department 
and a School Department and governmental 
machinery enough to run a vast city. The 
Council elected in 1854 was "Anti-Carpentier" 
and caused proceedings to be instituted to re- 
cover the waterfront. This and all other liti- 
gation against Mr. Carpentier touching the 
ownership of the property In question was 
unavailing. 

During the decade between 1854 and 1864 
there is but little of interest to be noted. The 
dredging of the bar at the mouth of the San 
Antonio Creek greatly benefitted the city, and 
the rivalry hetweeii the Larue and Minturn 
lines of ferry boats by cheapening fares, ad- 
vanced the prosperity of the town. The im- 
provement at the mouth of the Creek was not 
of long duration, and on account of the un- 
certainty of the ferry, many people who felt 
inclined to become residents of Oakland re- 
fused to do so. Between 1852 and 1860 the 
growth WHS reasonably rapid and by this later 
date Oaklantl had a population of 1.553; by 
1K7U it had grown to lf),5(l(l and by 1880 to 
.?4,5v5. The First Presbyterian Church and 
the Catholic Church had been started, the 
College of California had been incorporated 
but had not an actual existence. 

The extending of a pier from "Gibbon's 
Point" Into the deep water opposite Goat Is- 
land had long been projected, and uhen the 
San Francisco and (Oakland Railroad Com- 
pany undertook the work, Oakland commenc- 
ed a new life. Popidation increased very 
steadily, communication with San Francisco 
was frequent and regular, and modern Oak- 
land was ushered into existence. In 1868, real 
estate speculation began to assume prodigious 
proportions. Homestead associations almost 
ivithrn't lunnbcr were formed, and the lands 
riiulli "il 'he city th.it Iiad i>n years been uird 



as farms were staked off into hom«t"d h.-. 
upon many of which comfortable and elegant 
residences have since been erected. 

The great and apparently all-important 
event in the history of Oakland, since it emeri^- 
ed from the condition of a country village and 
became a city in fact as well as m name, >^ tin- 
compromise of the waterfront litigation .nd 
the cession of certain lands to the Western 
Pacific Railroad Company, whereby the ter- 
minus was secured for Oakland. 

In 1868 the location of the Western t,-r- 
minus of the Pacific Railroad was a matfL-r 
that attracted considerable attention m certain 
circles, but which the public generally had ri-,t 
commenced to consider. In the summer nj 
that year the City Council decided to obtain 
a settlement of the waterfront controversy ii 
possible. As the property stood, no per-fin 
could convey a valid title to it, the city :iiid 
Mr. Carpentier each claiming it. If probabih- 
tles were to be considered, it seemed as if the 
city would lose in any proceedings that might 
be undertaken. Honorable John B. Felton w a; 
employed on a liberal contingent fee to attend 
to the matter. It soon became apparent that 
unless a compromise was effected, so that either 
the City or Carpentier could make a convey- 
ance of some of this property to the railroad 
company, the terminus would be located else- 
where on the eastern shore of the bay. Van'm- 
negotiations were entered into, and the parries 
having come to a dear understanding, the 
whole affair was laid before the people of the 
city, receiving their formal endorsement and 
approval. In 1868, the Legislature being in 
session, a brief act was passed giving the City 
Council power to compromise and settle .\\\\ 
litigation in which the city might be a p,u:\ 
On April 1, 1868, the council passed an ur- 
dinance releasing to Mr. Carpentier the citvi 
claim to the entire waterfront and ratit>in- 
and endorsing the case of the fir« Board or 
Trustees, who had also conveyed to him the 
same property. Mr. Carpentier deeded the 
whole of it to the Waterfront Compaii\ .ind 
the Waterfront Company conveyed certain 
portions of it to the Western Pacific Railroad 
Company. In consideration of the grant, thi- 
railroad company agreed to locate its temiiM.i> 
in Oakland and expend five hundr«! thousand 
dollars tliereon u ithin a stipulated time — con- 
ditions that have been faithfully kept. There 
w.ns reserved to the city a portion of the wat- 
erfront of tile northern bank of the San An- 
tOLiio Creek, lying below Water Street, be- 
tween Webster and Franklin Streets, .md .v 
tending to deep water. The cumber^me de- 
tails by which the compromise was perlecteJ 
are not given in this connection, as thev h.ne 
long since been placed publicly oil rei-ord. jnd 
can readily be consulted by any one „ho de^i.^^ 
a critical knowledge conceniiinj «hem. 

In June. 18h«>. the cloud* .h« h-d bee., 
overhanging city property wer« dw,<n^d, a 
compromise whereby all outM.nd..^ cUuu, 
couldbepurcIut.rd«ano.,mulr«eh...n, 
been effected. Ue y„r. 18t>« .„J ,S^*) «e.e 
the most important in the ci,v\h,.nH.. I he 
1'-'^'"""» the ,erm.nu>h,.| been «,,le.l U.u. 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



2! 



titles had bt-cii perfected, the State University 
secured for the city and the local ferry had 
been improved so as to meet all the wants of 
the people. The wild real estate excitement 
having culminated without causing a depres- 
sion in prices, the erection of buildings pro- 
gressed more rapidly than ever. 

With hourly ferry service to San Francisco 
and real transportation facilities, Oakland 
went forward more rapidly and public im- 
provements were incorporated frequently. A 
petition for permission to erect a gas works 
was received by the council in 1865 and was 
followed by a number of others, eventually 
combined in the organization of the Oakland 
Gas Light Company which erected and main- 
tained a gas lighting system throughout the 

Lake Mcrritt, one of the beauty spots of 
modern Oakland, came into existence during 
this period. A dam was thrown across the arm 
of San Antonio Creek north of the Oakland 
bridge at a cost of $20,000 and a road 60 feet 
wide and four miles long built along the lake. 
It was estimated at the time that $500.000 
was added to the surrounding property. This 
has been multiplied many times since that date. 

Oakland was a town of 6000 inhabitants in 
1868 and covered an area of about 1600 acres 
of woodland giving it the appearance of a 
huge orchard in contrast to "the treeless streets 
of San Francisco." In three years the value of 
real estate and the number of inhabitants had 
doubled. The real impetus of subsequent de- 
velopment was given when the Transcontin- 
ental Railroad came in the same year. 

The years 1870-71 were eventful ones for 
the city. The Wester Street Bridge was built 
in the face of opposition from Brooklyn for 
the Legislature declined to uphold the latter's 
claim that such a structure would interfere 
with navigation. The county seat was trans- 
ferred from San Leandro to Oakland. The 
post office which had been moved repeatedly 
since it was established at 2nd and Broadway 
at last was given a permanent location on 
Broadway between 9th and lOth. A preten- 
tious structure put up by the Union Savings 
Bank at 9th and Broadway was but one of the 
number of first class buildings being erected at 
that time along Broadway. 

Oakland's growth during the first decade of 
its existence was based on a staple foundation 
and did not come as a result of "booms." 
When transportation facilities were provided 
business, industrial and residential development 
was given a new impetus and the ensuing years 
proved to be especially noteworthy. 

As a result of phenomenal development dur- 
ing the decade 1870-1880, Oakland rose to po- 
sition of second city on the Pacific Coast in 
point of importance, and had a population of 



36,500 in 1882. This remarkable growth had 
been made possible by improved transportation 
facilities, especially those connecting the East 
Bay with San Francisco. Fifty ferry trips 
were made from Oakland daily, each consum- 
ing about thirty minutes. Industrial develop- 
ment had been fostered by estuary and harbor 
improvements. A mole 6,500 feet long, ter- 
minating with a large ferry depot, was built 
by the Central Pacific Railroad Company of 
rock hauled thirty miles for the purpose. Oak- 
land had become a residential city of consid- 
erable importance in 1885. Mansions, houses 
and cottages were thickly sprinkled through 
oak groves that had given the place its name. 
Excellent facilities for public service were 
mainly responsible for this development. Water 
was piped in from Lake Chabot, behind San 
Leandro, where 5,000.000,000 gallons were 
stored in a reservoir four miles in length, com- 
pleted in 1874. It was to be eventually eight 
miles long, with a capacity of 1 5,000,000,000 
gallons. ^Vate^ was brought from a lake near 
Temescal to Piedmont and Oak Heights. 

Oakland was by IS85 "no longer a suburb 
of San Francisco, but had laid foundations for 
a separate business and commercial center." An 
enumeration of its various buildings and im- 
provements would make a formidable list of 
rather disconnected information; but it is in- 
teresting to note certain features of the city 
during the period of the early eighties. This 
end could probably be reached more surely 
through devoting a paragraph to each phase of 
the subject, delineating it in skeleton form 
rather than going into detailed description. 

Oakland was called in 1885 a "city of 
spires," for the steeples of forty churches rose 
above treetops and lower buildings at every 
point of the compass. The education welfare 
of the community was safeguarded as well as 
was the spiritual. There were seven school 
buildings with a capacity of 6,000 pupils. 
These structures were placed in wards with 
reference to population, which varied greatly 
In different districts. Inhabitants' literary de- 
sires were gratified through a public library of 
nearly 10,000 volumes. 

Although Oakland was from the first a great 
natural park with its groves of oaks, particular 
attention was paid toward founding a park 
system. There were eight squares and two 
plazas in the city at this juncture, of which the 
only two improved were Lafayette Square, be- 
tween Tenth, Jefferson, Eleventh and Grove 
Streets, where an observatory stood ; and Jef- 
ferson Square, bounded by Sixth, Jefferson, 
Seventh and Grove Streets — a partially im- 
proved plat. Other squares were In their 
natural state. 

Oakland's public buildings were fairly ade- 
quate for the tlnies, There wa^ the Court 



House, on the west side of Broadway between 
Fourth and Fifth Streets. It had been com- 
pleted in 1878. At the head of Washington 
Street stood the City Hall, built in 1868 at a 
cost of $80,000. This edifice was destroyed by 
fire in 1877 and was replaced by another build- 
ing costing $23.000. (The discrepancy be- 
tween the two figures given is accounted for by 
greater economy and lower prices of materi- 
als.) 

The city at this time boasted twelve princi- 
pal hostelrles caring for the wants of transient 
and permanent guests, three theaters, which 
were according to a contemporary writer "gen- 
erally in successful operation" to the number 
of first class buildings extending down Broad- 
way which had developed Into the main street 



GEORGE SANDEMAN 

Alnii/jffcr 
Telephone HIgate 0874 



WESTERN 

FORGE AND 
TOOLWORKS 

WELL TOOLS : DIE RINGS 

FORGINGS 
OF ALL DESCRIPTIONS 

SHIP SMITHING 

▼ 



209 JEFFERSON STREET 
OAKLAND, CALIF. 



Phone ///gate 3285 

INDEPENDENT 
TIRE COMPANY 

Disthhiitors 

INDIA TIRES ANV TUBES 

"Miles .Mu-ad ot Competition" 

30S0 BROADWAY 
OAKLAND. CALIFORRMA 



EL REPOSO SANITARIUM 

Specializing in HATTLK CRKKK TKKA TMENTS—ALSO PIIVSIO riiKKAI'\ I RKATMEN TS 

J. G. JACQUES, M. D., Physician and Surgeon 
Offjce Hours: 2-4 p.m. and by appoiniment 5548 TEl.KdRAPH A\'ENl'E 

Telephone HUmholdr S77I Oakland, Calilornia 

Only Siinttiiniiiii in i.mt liny uivinij linUli (.'mi- rmiliittiih 



of the town. Oakland liad "a paid lire de- 
partment; an electric telegraphic network used 
for fire alarm purposes; a district messenger 
system; a telephone exchange; a system of 
pipes to supply water to every house and 62 
miles of macadamized streets. Intra-city trans- 
portation was provided by eight horse-car rail- 
ways with a total of 35 miles of track. Most 
of the trans-bay traffic was handled by ferries 
terminating in Alameda. 

A nucleus for a large industrial section was 
made when the estuary of San Antonio was 
made accessible to vessels drawing more than 
two feet of water. A channel was dredged so 
that boats of ten foot draft might enter at lou' 
tide. 

"Tbe year 1K9Ü will be looked upon by tlu' 
Oaklanders of the future as the gri-at year o1 
the Renaissance. It will be a nionunient set by 
the roadside to work a i|iiickening of pace in 
the procession »f the years." So wrote the edit- 
or of the Oakland Daily Kvening Tribune fm 
the January ^. IH9I, iöiie. This prophetic 
statement was not amiss, for Oakland, as part 
of the increasingly homogeneous East Bay 
community, launched out on a period of devel- 
opment, not as spectacular as others preceding 
and succeeding, but during which foundations 
were laid for future commercial, industrial 
and residential growth. 

As a means of increasing the value of real 
estate and of improving transportation facili- 
ties in residential districts, many miles of 
streets were paved with blue trap rock, which 
formed the base for early macadamized pavc- 
meilts. In downtown districts bituminous rock 
was used for street work, and matters came to 
such a pass that petitions for new paving called 
for more stone than could be furnished by 
quarries in the vicinity of the East Bay. Old 
plank sidewalks that had been in service for 
many years were torn up and replaced with 
cement. New vitrified ironstone sewers were 
installed in place of root-chocked broken sew- 
ers, which had formed a menace to public 
health. All in all, things that should have 
been done years before were suddenly accom- 
plished in Oakland. 

There had been a short-lived real estate 
boom in 1887. that had come after a prolonged 
period of dullness and it was not until two 
years after it had started that land prices be- 
came definitely fixed on a solid business basis. 
In 1890 there were no building sites for less 
than $30 a front foot. A short time before the 
same lots could have been purchased at half 

that figure. 

Five hundred and fifty-eight structures were 
in Oakland in 189Ü at a cost of nearly $2,000,- 
000. The central city and suburbs had built 
up so that the transition from one district to 
another was becoming less perceptible. 

The industrial sections of Oakland were by 
no means lying dormant for by 1890 there 
were 3000 people employed by its factories 
which had an annual production value of over 
$11,000,000. I'lour, leather, jute, nails, pot- 
tery' and building materials were the principal 
prclucis. Lumber and coal were the cliief iiii- 
poru by sea. A new phase of industrial activ- 
ity ik «en in th« presence of three large slup- 



building yards on the shore of the estuary m 

1891. . . 

A number of electric railway companies od- 
tained franchises and built lines during this 
period but were eventually consolidated into 
the Key System Transit Company or acquired 
by the Southern Pacific Co. 

' The long standing waterfront controversy 
was partially settled in 1893, after three dec- 
ades of litigation. The Central Pacific, Oak^ 
land's chief opponent in the dispute, had 
bought the Western Pacific and thereby gamed 
entrance to the city by way of Niles Canyon. 
The present W^estern Pacific, built by George 
Could, also runs through this depression m 
the Coast Range hills. The original line is 
now the Southern Pacific. 

The subject of development in the East Ray 
Community after 1900, is essentially a single 
story. Factors that benefited one city gave im- 
petus to growth ill the others. In 1905 Oak- 
land gained slowly in po|)ulation and was 
rather tardy with municipal improvements. 
The waterfront question was definitely settled 
in 1910. after fifty years of litigation, when 
the city recovered possession of its harbor 
front— thus allowing an unrestricted field for 
industrial and commercial growth. The land 
concerned stretched from San Lcandro Bay 
along the inner harbor of Brooklyn Basin and 
the estuary, thence covering the western shore. 
With the exception of two small wharves at 
the foot of Franklin and Grove Streets, how- 
ever, all of the harbor on the south and west 
shores was under private ownership and con- 
trol. The railroads were given franchises and 
their lands will, after a period of years, revert 
to the city. Harbor development immediately 
began. It consisted of building quay walls, 
wharves and new frontage— which made pos- 
sible a fifty per cent increase in water tonnage, 
in 1915, over the 1905 figures. 

In 1911 a new city charter prepared and 
prosed by a Board of Freeholders was adopted 
setting up the Mayor Commission Form of 
Government which had recently come into 

vogue. 

There were few adequate public buildings 
in Oakland in 1905. The City Hall, a wood- 
en structure, with the police office and jail in 
its basement, was subsequently replaced with 
a new City Hall of revolutionary design. A 
municipal auditorium was constructed at about 
the same time on the south approach to Lake 
M er ritt. 

In 1905 Oakland's park area consisted of 
seven small squares, ten acres of unimproved 
land in the western part of the city, and Inde- 
pendence Square, comprising eleven acres of 
unimproved land bounded by Sixteenth Ave- 
nue and East Seventeenth Street. The total 
area of these reservations was about thirty- 
three acre^; not including Lake Merritt— then 
undevelo|ied. A park commission was organiz- 
ed in 1908; succeeded by the Board of Park 
Directors in 1911. In ten years all of these 
pjirks were improved— an area, including Lake 
Merritt, of 350 acres. This aclucvement con- 
cluded for tlic time being the history of Oak 
land's parks, which runs back to the caily 
fifties when the little town of Embaicadeiu 



"'^Events of the year 1906 played significant 
parts in working out the dcstmi«. of the E«, 
n,v On April 1 8th the earthquake and fire 
o^urred in San Francisco, wiping out the 
greater portion of that city. R-^'-g- *^«» 
the flame-swept area poured mto the East Bay. 
a substantial proportion of whom rema.ncd 
en after San Francisco had been rehabilitat- 
ed It ha-s been estimated that 73,(mO new- 
comers settled in Alameda County, a majonty | 
of them permanently. . - • .q«, 1 

Greater Oakland came into being in 1909 ' 
when the city's area was extended by the addi- 
tion of Elmhurst, Fruitvale and Melr^^e. from , 
-.^09 squares miles to 60.77 square m.lcs. A ^ 
waterfront of 27 miles was created by recia- 
.nation work and a property valuation of 1 
<| 74 000,000 was attained. Building permits 
exceeded $6,000,000 in 1909 and the people 
thought it worth while to vote over $3.000.000 
in bonds for waterfront improvements. There 
were in 1909 153 miles of electric railway cen- 
tering in Oakland, making it the nucleus of 
an unusually comprehensive transportation 

system. . . 

Oakland had gained all the characterwtics 
of a city by 1909 with an area of over 38,000 
acres fairly well built up. In the period from 
1905 to 1915, 110 miles of sewers were laid 
in annexed districts. With an increase of auto- 
mobile traffic, more durable street paving was 
necessary. An asphalt with a California petrol 
base was adopted. Over sixty miles of streett 
were paved with this composition by 1915 and 
others were being constructed at the rate of 
20 to 30 miles per year. In 1914 there were 
37 miles of asphalt streets; 305 of macadam; 
59 of turnpike; and 127 miles of unimproved 
roads. Bordering these were 685 miles of 
sidewalks. Statistics of this nature have been 
given to more graphically picture the enormous 
area covered by Oakland. 

Although the most spectacular periods m 
East Bay history were those decades beginning 
with 1860 and 1910. the post-war years have 
proved by far the more interesting. When the 
war broke out in 1914, the general building 
campaign that had been in progrei» was 
brought to a halt by sudden rises in pricts mi 
a scarcity of labor. Even after the Armislice 
had been signed, many munths passed beto« 
conditions had relumed to nomial. \\ h«n 
prices became more reasonable consttuct««» 
work was resumed on a large scale. In Oak- 
land, for example, the value oi building [>«• 
mits jumped from $9.500.000 in l^-M. » 
$24,000.000 in 1922 and to $3l.lHttUKX) u» 
1924, finally reaching a tup figure oi $39,000.- 
000 in 1923, since which tiaw there has »>«*> 
a slight decrease. Howtrver, in »pit« "* **" 
present economic depression, Oakland »I' 
miiintiiins its leadeiship in lhi> ropevt iod * 
considered one of (he bn^ht sinits in the coiiU' 
try. Statisti^-s, recently ciunpile\l. placed I«»" 
land iunong the 23 cities .Jjo« ins the I»'** 
volume of building activiiy duiuig the h»^ 
qiiditet u( 1*>3J. 

This cnurmou» growth o» buildiiVC **»^''* 
must be lor the mwt twit «tutbutcU i\> v>f^ 



CALIFORNIA JOURy.\L HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



2^ 



tion increases in the East Bay. Oakland in 
1920 led all California cities in average dc- 
centennial increase in population since 1870. 
This growth was brought about by many fact- 
ors, chief among which were good transporta- 
tion facilities, excellent living conditions and 
the availabüity of desirable homesitcs at reas- 
onable prices. The population of Oakland had 
risen to 284,000 in 1930, an increase of about 
90% in two decades. 

Industrially Oakland made great strides 
during these post-war years. Manufacturing 
products increased from $100.000,000 in 1919 
to over $500,000,000 by 1931. Retail trade has 
shown a steady increase. The assessed valua- 
tion of property has risen to approximately 
$300,000,000. New Industries have located 
in the East Bay section at the rate of about 
100 per year; 1500 industries being in opera- 
tion ill 1931, employing 48,000 persons with 
an annual payroll of over $65,000,000. 

This growth is occasioned by the distinct 
advantage Oakland has as the geographic cen- 
ter of the Pacific Coast States, by its unex- 
celled transportation facilities and by its ideal 
living conditions. 

Within the last decade important strides 
have been made In the development of port 
facilities. The establishment of a non-political 
Port Commission in 1926 and the voting of a 
$9,960,000 Port Bond Issue inaugurated an 
era of port development that has brought con- 
stant progress in Port of Oakland shipping and 
has made Oakland a recognized world port. 
The Oakland Municipal Airport established 
in 1927 as a subsidiary of the Post Depart- 
ment is internationally noted for its excellence 
of plan and management and is the center on 
the Pacific Coast of both commercial and gov- 
ernment aeronautic activities. Furthermore, it 
is the only airport, up to the present time, 
which has received the rating of A-l-A, the 
highest award issued by the United State De- 
partment of Commerce Aeronautics Branch. 

The continuance and rapid growth of the 
East Bay communities had made, what was in 
the early years an abundant supply of water, 
a very unreliable source by the beginning of the 
post-war period. Consequently the communi- 
ties, led by Oakland, saw a new source, which 
would assure a supply for the unlimited 
growth anticipated for the East Bay region. 
The result was the organization of the East 
Bay Municipal Utility District comprising all 
of the communities and unincorporated areas 
from San Leandro to Richmond. By rapid 
steps the acquisition of sites on the Mokclumne 
River, the building of dams, power houses, fire 
lines and other operating structures were un- 
dertaken so that in a period of a little over 
six years from the time that the district was 
organized, and less than four years from the 
time construction was started, the municipally 
owned supply was available. To the original 
bond issue of $39,000,000 voted for tlic con- 
struction of the project in 1924, the voters lat- 
er added $26,000,000 for the purchase of the 
Last Bay Water Comiiany's distributing sys- 
trni which wa» tlien niodernized and cnlari-ed 
to me« the needs of the community lor many 



years to come, thus relieving the East Bay 
communities of any further specter of a water 
famine. 

T his period also saw the construction of a 
submarine tube linking Oakland and Alameda 
and replacing the old Webster Street bridge 
which was dismantled to allow free movement 
of commerce in the estuary. The removal of 
this obstruction has speeded the development 
of this watcr^vay and the surrounding area as 
a shipping and industrial center. 

Reclamation work along the waterfront 
boundaries has added many acres of land valu- 
able as industrial sites and to which many new 
large industries have been attracted. The total 
estimated expenditure for this enormous con- 
struction will benefit all the communities of 
the East Bay regions from $19,738.314 lu 
$31,898,529 depending upon the area an. I 
reclamation operation. 

The beginning of a new decade has once 
again witnessed a change in Oakland's form 
of government. By the vote of the people the 
council manager form of government was In- 
stituted on July I, 1931. 

Under the leadership of the new City Coun- 
cil, a body representing all sections of the city 
as well as the various social, professional, busi- 
ness and industrial fields of endeavor, a care- 
fully considered program of civic improve- 
ments has been launched : 

Among the first of these — a new $125.000 
Exposition Building was recently completed on 
city property adjoining the Municipal Audi- 
torium and is attracting many local and na- 
tional expositions and shows to the city. 

Legislation has been speeded on an am- 
bitious program of street openings and im- 
provements which will make the business, 
home and industrial sections more accessible. 
Work Is under way on a $4,000,000 low 
level highway tunnel through the hills that 
will provide another high speed artery from 
the great interior valleys into Oakland. 

Through cooperation with the East Bay 
communities and San Francisco, sanction by 
all Federal and State bodies of the San Fran- 
cisco-Oakland Bay Bridge has been obtained 
and work on this great project Is tmdcr way. 

A new post office building occupying an 
entire block between 12th and I3tli, Harrison 
and Alice Streets, and costing over $1,000,0011 
is Hearing completion. Federal buildings to 
cost approximately $5,000,000 were started on 
Government Island during 1931 for the Un- 
ited States Coast and Geodetic Survey, Coast 
Guard, Bureau of Public Roads and Forest 
Service. 

Despite the economic depression which des- 
cended upon the world at the heglnning of 
this period, Oakland has forged aliead. Devel- 
ojiuient of a new business district on upper 
Broadway has progressed with the erection ot 
nuiny new business structures, a number of 
which are in the million dollar class. The old 
buhiness section on l<>\ver Broadway has taken 
new life and is asserting its posilion as the 
business center of Oakland. 

Kduiallunatly Oakl.uid is now served by 7() 
ächuul buildings, having an aggregate value ot 



over $25,000,000. New units are being added 
continually. The Fremont High School cost- 
ing approximately $425,000 was completed 
early in 1932. The University of California, 
which made its humble beginning m Oakland, 
has now grown to be one of the largest and 
most outstantilng institutions of its kind in the 
world. 

With a history of sound progress In all of 
the things that portend greatness as a back- 
ground and with a wealth of natural advant- 
ages, Oakland is on the brink of realizing the 
dream of its pioneers, that of becoming the in- 
dustrial center of the Pacific Coast. 



Elmhurst Gardens 

Slst .AvcnuL- and Rusdale Street 

Two Blocks South of f'ast I4tli St. 

No. S Car Oakland. Cal. 

The best located and most suitable place 

for private parties, weddings, theatricals. 

lodge entertainments and picnics 

Your iiispfftion is ittvited 

For further information call 

SAM NASS.Air. Manager 

Phtjiie LAb-si.k- 7Si(S 



UGNGYEEX'S 

HERB 

PREPARATIONS 

We use T. S. T. remedies. Cure Ap- 
pendicitis. Carbuncles, Tonsllitis, etc., 
without knife or any operation. Only 
ten dollars per week. 

Take this Anti-Flu Remedy for pre- 
vention of influenza. It heads it off be- 
fore attack ; cures when attacked. After- 
wards It purifies clearing all noxious 
germs from the body. 

TUNG SHUE CHINESE 
HERB CO. 

826-828 Harrison" Street 

Cor. 9th Street 

OAKLAND. CALIFORNIA, U. S. A 



I'liuiit- LAkiiSiue 429 

Dr. WONG HIM 
HERB CO. 

2031 WEBSTER STREET 
OAKLAND. C.^LIF. 

Office Hours 
10 A. M. to 1 P. M.— 2 tu 6 P. AI. 



Huffman School of 
Results 

Sufiess Depends Vfyon Early TrainiHg 

Public School Lessons from the 1st to 

7tli Grades : Special Inslructiuns fur 

Corrective Speech Ca»« Are Given. 

1740 East 19th St. t),\Ki.AN'D, C.\l. 
FhoHt FRtnvALK 4673-W 



CALIFORNIA JOURXAL HISTQRICAL^NNUAl 



FLAGS THAT HAVE FLOWN OVER CALIFORNIA 

Many Flags and many Colon - biil mnr ik Mars and Stripes Formr. 




HEN on our natiiinal holidays ue sec 
our glorious Stars and Stripes proud- 
ly and beautifully displayed all over 
our beloved State of California, it 
__ also reminds us that this has not al- 

ways been the case, that, in fact, not less than 
six other flags have for longer or shorter 
periods flown over California before her final 
and universal adherence to the star-spangled 
emblem of unity and strength. 

Some of the principal events occurring dur- 
ing the flying of the various flags in California 
have been narrated in a most interesting man- 
ner by Philip Baldwin Bekcart for the well- 
known Society of California Pioneers. With 
the Society's much-appreciated permission we 
have culled the following excerpts from his 
illuminating account; 

The Spanish Flag in California. 
September 28, 1542 to April II, 1822. 
—280 Years. 
Vasco Nunez de Balboa at Darien. on Sep- 
tember 29, 1513, clad in full armor and car- 
r>'ing the banner of Castile and Leon in his 
hand, walked out into the Pacific Ocean and 
with his sword pointing heavenward, claimed 
as the discoverer that ocean and all the land 
that it washed for the King and Queen of 
Castile, Leon and Aragon. This claim, how- 
ever, was not recognized as valid by the other 
maritime nations of that period. 

Hernando Cortez took possession of Califor- 
nia {lower) for Spain on June 3, 1535, sup- 
posing it to be an island. When Juan Ro- 
driguez de Cabrillo in September, 1542. en- 
tered the port of San Diego, being the first 
white man who cast his eyes or placed his feet 
upon its soil, he became the discoverer of Alta 
California. When on the next day, Septem- 
ber 29, exactly twenty-nine years after Bal- 
boa's discovery, he planted the royal standard 
of Spain on the shore and claimed the territory 
for Spain, theoretically that flag may be said 
to have remained in California, and this coun- 
try was recognized as a Spanish possession un- 
til 1822 when Mexico revolted and declared 
her independence of Spain. 

Nevertheless, no actual settlement was made 
for nearly two hundred and twenty-seven 
years. On April 29, 1769, the San Carlos 
sailed into San Diego under \'incentc Villa, 
with a party of soldiers and settlers under the 
command of Lieutenant Pedro Fages, There- 
fore, the Spanish flag actually waved over Alta 
California from the date of this first settle- 
ment until April 11, 1S22, a period of fifty- 
three years. Theoretically, however, it may 
be said to have waved over Alta California 
from September 28, 1542 until the date of the 
independence of Mexico, April II, 1822— two 
hundred and eighty years. 

The English Flag in Caui'obnia, 
June 17. 1579, to July 23, 1579,-37 days. 
Drakie, afterwards Sir Francis Drake, wah 
one of Ensland'n grcatc»! bca fighterii. He \va*> 



been called everything from preacher to pirate, 
admiral and buccaneer, and he was charged 
with almost every crime in the calendar, yet 
he was supposed to have sailed on this famous 
voyage that brought him to California under 
a commission from Queen Elizabeth. He sail- 
ed around Cape Horn to the Pacific Ocean, 




looted and burned Spanish ships and towns 
and remained in California, at Drake's Bay. 
for thirty-seven days. 

In the controversy over the boundary line 
between Canada and the United States, Great 
Britain used Drake's landing as one basis for 
her claims to the Oregon territory. 

The Russian Flag in California. 
September 10, 1812 to December 12, 1841, 
— 29 years. 
The Russian settlement at Fort Ross was 
the outcome of a plan conceived by Count Nik- 
olai Petrovich Rezanov, a chamberlain attach- 
ed to the Russian Court, uho arrived in Sitka, 
Alaska, in September, 1805. In order to buy 
food for the starving colonists there he sailed 
south and, with his crew almost depleted by 
scurvy, entered the Bay of San Francisco on 
April 8, 1806 (March 28. old style). 

While anchored here he undoubtedly formu- 
lated the plan of obtaining a foothold for the 
Russians in California so that they could claim 
the country between San Francisco Bay and 
the Columbia River. The fur seals were plen- 
tiful along the coast of California and in San 
Francisco Bay, which was also an incentive for 
the Russian settlements a few years later, at 
Bodega and Fort Ross. 

The first lengthy stay of Russians in Cali- 
fornia occurred when Captain Alexander 
Kuskof in the employ of the Russian Ameri- 
can Fur Company, sailed from Sitka in the 
ship "Kadiak" and landed on the shore of 
Bodega Bay, Sonoma County, on January 8, 
1809. He remained there eight months, hunt- 
ing otter and seal, and then went back to 
Alaska. He returned in the spring of 1811. 
remaining only a short time. 

Late in 1811, Kuskof made a third trip to 
California and obtained from the Indians title 
to the land around Bodega Bay. It is written 
that the purchase price was "three blankets, 
two axes, three hoes and some beads. I He 
Russians built a fort in a strong enclosure on 
the bluffs sixteen miles north of Bodega and 
named it Fort Ros«. It was dedicated Septem- 
ber lU 1K12. In I83(.ihe population of fort 
Ross was about four hundred-sixty RusMans. 



ighty Alaskans or Kadiaks. and the remain- 
der Indians. 

The Russians had been clostly watched by 
the Spaniards who claimed the entire coast 
country. The Spaniards had many times or- 
dered the Russians to evacuate the country, 
but they were so well entrenched at Fort Ro« 
that no force the Spaniards in California could 
bring against them would have ousted them. 

The United States Government was also 
watching the Russian activities on the Pacific 
Coast. In December 1823, President Monroe 
made the first positive declaration "that the 
American Continents were no longer subjects 
for future colonization by any Eurr>pean 
Power." This positive declaration >,i the 
United States undoubtedly stopped further 
Russian encroachment in California and also 
caused the Russians to withdraw their notice 
to other nations that the North Pacific was 
closed to the entry of foreign vessels. 

In 1833 Governor Figueroa of California 
wrote to the City of Mexico in an endeavor 
to start some action to drive these intniders 
out of California, but nothing came of his pro- 
tests. Governor Wrangel, the Russian head 
ofl^cer at Sitka, visited Fort Ross and then 
journeyed to Mexico in order to purchase the 
territory north of San Francisco Bay as far 
as Sacramento. The Mexicans, however, re- 
fused to cede any part of California. Then 
came the decision of the Russian American Fur 
Company to abandon Fort Ross and Cali- 
fornia. 

On December 12. 1841. the Russians sold 
all their stock and. in fact, everj-thing mov- 
able, to that super-pioneer. Captain John .\. 
Sutter, who transported it to Sutter's Fort m 
Sacramento. The Russians' decision to ev.ic- 
uate their California foothold was probably 
due to the fact that they had practically deci- 
mated the fur seal herds along the coast, and 
it was, no doubt, hastened by the timely reiter- 
ation of the Monroe Doctrine by the United 
States. 

Thus disappeared the Russian flag from 
California where it had flown for twenty-nine 
years, or thirty-two years, if the early visits ol 
Kuskof are reckoned. 

The Independents ur Bi'enos Aires Flag 

IN' Calikurxia. 

November 20, I8IS to December 16. ISIS. 

— 16 days. 

Two Buenos Aires vessels were the cause 

of this little known episode in the history oi 

California, overlooked by even somr of ihc 

best-known historians. 

During the war of Indepciulciice bet«een 
Spain, the mother country, and the Iiide(>eiul 
ents, consisting of Mexico and the Central 
and South Ainerican pruvincrs, a ia\\\ w*» 
made by the Indepeiideius on .-Mta Calitunu* 
—the only mid that was ever made by shi^vs 
on tlie settlenienis in this state as the I'nitrtI 
States occupation could hiirdly be teriitr<t a 
raid. 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



25 



Ainericaii-built vessels lound ready sale at 
Buenos Aires, where they were fitted out as 
privateers, sailing under the Buenos Aires or 
Independents flag. One of them, the Santa 
Rosa, left on a cruise to harass the Spaniards 
but before long reports were received that she 
was plundering vessels belonging to or friendly 
with the Independents, and raiding towns 
along the coast of Chile and Peru, evidently 
more a pirate than a patriot. 

The Santa Rosa finally arrived at Hono- 
lulu where the officers and crew attempted to 
sell both the plunder and the ship. These 
actions aroused the suspicions of King Kame- 
hamcha, who seized the ship and confined the 
crew. 

Meanwhile tlic man-of-war Argentina, also 
American-built but belonging to Buenos Aires, 
and commanded by Captain Hippel yte dc 
Bouchard, a Frenchman, was sent out to cap- 
ture the Santa Rosa with which she caught 
up at Honolulu. Bouchard demanded that 
ship and crew be immediately turned over to 
him, and the King complied with his demand. 

While in Honolulu, Bouchard engaged an 
educated English sailor, Peter Corney, as a 
navigator and to take command of the Santa 
Rosa. The Spanish records list him as Lieu- 
tenant Pedro Corvale, Corney had spent five 
years in trading ships between the northwest 
coast of North America and the Hawaiian 
Islands. He was undoubtedly familiar with 
the California harbors, having visited Trin- 
idad, Fort Ross or Bolinas, Drake's Harbor, 
(probably Yerba Buena) and Monterey. 

The Argentina and the Santa Rosa with 
plenty of guns and a motley crew of many 
hues and colors then set sail for California "to 
cruise against the Spaniards," They arrived at 
Monterey on November 20, 1818, capturing 
the fort the following day by driving out its 
small garrison of about twenty-five soldiers. In 
this manner the Independents took possession 
of Monterey without organized opposition, 
the sailors "searching the houses for money, 
breaking and ruining everything." 

On November 22, the Commodore sent a 
flag of truce to the Spaniards offering an ex- 
change of prisoners. Not receiving a reply, 
on November 24 he set fire to the town. They 
remained in Monterey until December 1, 
meanwhile taking on a supply of livestock, 
wood and water. 

On December 4, the Independents landed 
near Point Concepcion and took El Refugio, 
the Ortega ranch and family home, "all in- 
habitants fleeing at our approach." Other 
places visited by them were the Island of 
Santa Cruz, Santa Barbara and San Juan Ca- 
pistrano. Most of the populace had fled and 
everywhere only the feeblest of resistance was 
offered the raiders until on December 1 3 or 
16, Spanish reinforcements having arrived 
from San Diego and Los Angeles. Jose de la 
(juerra sent a challenge tu Bouchard a^iking 
him to land and liave battle. Bouchard evi- 
dently did not see the necessity for such heroic 
action, for he hoisted liiti aiichoDi and bore 
aw«y »outh. After stopping at the island uf 
Cere», he sailed for Valparaiso, the Santa 



Rosa arriving there on July ') and the Argen- 
tina on July 17. 

The Buenos Aires flag may be said to have 
flown over Alta California at various times 
and in various places, from November 20 to 
December 16, 1818, on shore all or part of 
sixteen days and in California waters, twenty- 
six days. 



The Mexican Flag in California 
April 11, 1822 to July 7, 1846,-24 years. 

Mexico proclaimed her independence of 
Spain as early as March 16. 1821, but the Cali- 
foniians paid no attention to the matter and 
remained loyal to Spain until April, 1822. 

In the spring of 1822 the Californians re- 
alized the fact that they were no longer sub- 
jects of Spain. Notices were received by vari- 
ous notable Californians to attend a junta at 
Monterey. The delegates met on April 9, 
1822, and on April 11, passed a resolution of 
loyalty to the Mexican government. The 
meeting ended with a celebration. 

Between that time and the occupation of 
the State by the ignited States forces, Cali- 
fornia experienced three revolutions against 
Mexico, was victorious in all three, but still 
remained under the Mexican flag. The first 
revolution was in January, 1832. The Cali- 
fornians deposed Governor Manuel Victoria 
and made Pio Pico governor. A year later they 
welcomed the Mexican governor Jose Fi- 
gueroa who held office until Jose Castro was 
appointed. January, 1836, saw Governor 
Nicolas Gutierrez holding office, and he was 
succeeded in a few months by Mariano Chico 
w'hose tyranny caused his downfall. Gutierrez 
again took office and held it a few months, 
when he was deposed by a Californian, Juan 
B. Alvarado, who forgot California independ- 
ence when the Mexican government appointed 
him Governor of Alta California, This end- 
ed that revolution. 

In December, 1842, Manuel Micheltorena 
took the reins of government in the province, 
and continued until February, 1845. when a 
revolution headed by Ex-Governor Alvarado, 
General Vallejo and Ex-Governor Castro, 
ended his rule. Micheltorena was put aboard 
an American vessel bound for San Bl.is. Mex- 
ico, and Pio Pico was again made Governor 
— which office he held until the American oc- 
cupation. It is said that three persons were 
killed in the three revolutions, Pablo V. De 
Sola uias the first and Pio Pico the last Mex- 
ican Governor of California. 

In the Mexico-Lfnited States war of 1846, 
peace in California was not actually agreed 
upon until January 13, 1847, and the prov- 
ince did not pass under American control un- 
til the signing of the treaty between the 
United States and Mexico at Guadalupe de 
Hidalgo, Mexico, February 2, 1848. 

The United States paid Mexico fifteen mil- 
lion dollars for California and other ceded 
territory. Nine days before the treaty was 
signed, on January 24, 1848, James VV. Mar- 
shall discovered gold at Sutter's Mill — a little 
Hake worth fifty cents. 



The Bear Flag in Cai.imjrma. 

June 14. 1846 to July 9, 1846,-26 days. 

The American revolt which caused the rais- 
ing of the Bear Flag was started quickly and 
ended quickly. The claims and assertions of 
the various participants, however, who have 
left records of the Bear Flag revolt, make the 
story a very complex one. 

William B, Ide, a comparatively recent set- 
tler, instigated the revolt. Although his proc- 
lamations, issued when he was commander of 
the Bears, are a trifle verbose and over-patri- 
otic, he was honest in his opinion that Fre- 
mont had let him do all the work, and had 
then taken all the honor. All reliable records 
prove his contention. Fremont intimated in 
after years that he conceived the Bear Flag 
revolt, whereas records show that the settlers 
had banded together before he had even heard 
of the reason. This reason was the growing 
antagonism of the Mexican and native Cali- 
fornians against the immigrants from the 
American East and Middle-West. 

Bancroft says: "The testimony is clear and 
to the point. It is to the effect that the revolt 
was purely a movement of self-defense on the 
part of the American settlers," and that Fre- 
mont was "mean enough in the hour of suc- 
cess to appropriate to himself credit for ac- 
tions in which he really took no part," 

There are hundreds of letters, books, docu- 
ments and manuscripts relating to the Bear 
Flag War. As this article is necessarily short, 
be it briefly stated that it culminated in the 
capture of Sonoma by Ide and his followers 
after about equal amounts of heroism, hard- 
ships and intrigues. The Bear Flag actually 
waved over Sonoma from June 14 to July 9, 
1846, twenty-six days. On July 9, 1846, the 
Bear Flag was lowered from the staff and 
Old Glory raised. 

The Star Spangled Banker in 

California 

July 7, 1846 to Forever. 

All of California, north of San Francisco 
Bay, had been won and was in the hands of 
the Bear Flag party. On July 2, 1846, Com- 
modore John Drake Sloat arrived at Mon- 
terey. On July 7, 1846, he landed his forces 
at Monterey and took possession of the city. 

He bad in port at that time the frigate 
Savannah, his flagship, and the sloops of war 
Cyane and Levant. Midshipniaii William P. 
Toler hoisted Old Glory to the top ol the flag 
pole on the Custom Hoii*. which was the 
signal for raising the American fl.ag all over 
the state, Toler again hoisted the flag on the 
same building during the celebration of the 
fiftieth annivcr>ary, July 7, 1896. 

On July 9, acting under orders from Com- 
modore Sloat. Captain James B. Montgomery, 
commanding the sloop-of-war Portsmouth, 
raided the United States flag in the Pla/a at 
Yerba Buena, now Portsmouth Square, Sun 
Francisco. The same day, July 9, the Bear 
Flag was lowered at Sonoma and the Stars 
and Stripes raised by Lieutenant Revere ol 
the Port>mouth, Two days later, July It. 
the flag was officially raised (possibly by Gen- 
eral Suiter) at Sutler's Fort. 



CALIFORNIAJOUR^MLHIS^^ 



On July 17. Purser Dangerfieia Famitleroy 
of the Savannah, who was acting captam ot 
the Volunteer Dragoons from the ships, raised 
the flag at San Juan (Bautista). This ended 
the flag raising at all the important places 
north of San Luis Obispo. The story of the 
battles and skirmishes in Californ.a ,s too 
long for this article; suffice to say that (Tcn- 
eral Flores. Jose Antonio Carrillo, Andrea 
Pico and other Mexican and Californian ofh- 
ccrs who had broken their parole given at 
Los' Angeles, surrendeKd with the.r troops 
January 13, 1847, to Acting Major Fremont, 
and thereby escaped paying the penalty via the 
yard-arm or a firing-squad. Fremont had no 
authority to accept their surrender. 

Contrary to popular understanding, i're- 
mont did not direct nor participate m any 
battle or skirmish in California where blood 
was shed— the notorious Point San Quentin 
massacre excepted. 

The treaty of peace between Mexico and 
the United States was signed at Guadalupe de 
Hidalgo, Mexico, on February 2, 1S48. 

Beautifying the 
California Highways 

Among the various side projects that have 
been carried on during the last few years by 
the California Division of Highways, in con- 
nection with highway improvement generally, 
is the beautification of the immediate districts 
traversed by the major avenues of travel. One 
of the chief items has been the landscaping of 
the rights of way. including the scientific plant- 
ing of wild flowers, shrubbery and other 
native growths. 

Although the results have been increasingly 
apparent with each successive season since the 
work was started, the exceptionally fine grow- 
ing weather this year has served to stress the 
success of the project along the Redwood 
Highway, particularly in southern Humboldt 
County. Acres of native California poppies, 
the lupine, the shrubs and innumerable other 
types of flora have converted the roadside into 
a panorama of color. 

The department charged with the work is 
to be complimented upon the intelligence with 
which the problem has been approached. No 
attempt has been made to "gild the lily," so to 
speak, or to make any radical change in the 
original landscape. Rather, everything has 
been done with the view of combining the at- 
tractions of native and imported species. 

One criticism of the Redwood Highway in 
the past has been directed at the lack of wild 
flowers along the route at certain seasons of 
the year. Happily, thanks to the higliway 
IK'Ople, this criticism can no longer hold true. 

Kureka is the county seat of Humboldt 
County, and the metropolis of northwestern 
California, with a population of approximately 
twenty thousand (1928). It is located 294 
miles north of San Francisco and 472 and 
seven-tenths mileii south of Portland, Oregon. 
Kureka is located on one of the most beau- 
tiful &cei)ic route;, in the country, tin* Redwood 
Highway, "The Highway of the ((iants," 



WATSONVILLE 




city m 



HOSE who know Watsonville— 
"THE APPLE CITY"— in the 
Pajaro Valley in the southern end of 
Santa Cruz County, mention of it 
calls to mind a thriving, prosperous 
the center of a rich agricultural dis- 
trict They will immediately think of its 
location, climate, resources, products, educa- 
tional facilities, municipal advantages, recrea- 
tional possibilities and its desirability as a place 
of residence, for it is well and favorably 
known throughout the Pacific Coast regions 
and nationally has a reputation as ' IHK 
APPLE CITY." 

Of its early history, the beginning of colon- 
ization, the life of the Californians "before the 
Gringo came" less is known, and this article 
is designed to acquaint the reader with a few 
interesting historical facts of Watsonville and 
romantic data connected with the Pajaro Val- 
ley. 

A recent historian states in substance: 
"It was on Sunday. October 8, 1759. Deer 
were grazing on the site of the present city 
of Watsonville— buffalo herds moving nearby 
and wickiups of Indians dotted here and there. 
Across the river a train approached, made up 
of weary men, sick with fatigue, tramping 
heavily over the dry grass— Portola and his 
men— first white men to arrive in Santa Cru;? 
C'junty. 

Searching for the Bay of Monterey, they 
had passed it without recognizing it and were 
now on the banks of a river which Padre 
Crespi named Lady St. Ana but which the 
soldiers christened Rio del Pajaro (River of 
the Bird)." 

Their reason for this choice is disclosed in 
Padre Crespi's diary- he writes: "We saw at 
this place a large bird kÜled by the Indians, 
who had stuffed it with zavatc (dry gr;iss). 
To some of us it appeared the royal eagle. It 
measured eleven palms from one point of the 
wing to the other." And "River of the Bird" 
it remains to this day. 

After an enforced rest on the banks of the 
Pajaro, the weary travelers resumed their 
journey and within three miles discovered high 
trees of red-colored wood, hitherto unknown 
to any of the expedition. They named them 
from the color — "Palo Colorado" — literally 
"Red Stick," and so the first redwood trees 
seen in California are near Watsonville and 
named by Costanzo of the Portola expedition. 

Several adobe houses of historic interest, the 
abode of early settlers, are still to be found 
in the Pajaro Valley — notably the Glass 
House, owned by the V'allejo Family, so-called 
on account of the glass windows, first to be 
installed in the valley; tlic Castro adobe on 
the San Francisco Rancho in Lurkin Valley, 
quite pretentious in its dimensions and built at 
a cost of ;^3l),lHl() rfbout ISO yean, ago, and llie 
Jose Jesus Vallejo adohe, built In ISjl) on the 
Holsa Can Cayeliino, removed to Sil Hlack- 
hurn Street, Watsonville, and restoinl in \^H\U 
hy Dr. Siixton '1'. Pope. Any of these uu- well 



worth a visit by the tourist seeking a blending 
of romance and history. The Amesti Adobe 
on the Corralitos Rancho was blown up with 
dynamite by vandals seeking hidden trcasurt. 
The Rodriguez adobe situated on Watsonville 
Heights, within the present city limils, hai 
also been completely destroyed. 

There are still amongüt us old men and 
women who dropped their knowledge of hj»- 
tory when this section became Americanized; 
to them Spanish is still the accepted language 
of the "pals"; to them Main Street is still 
Pajaro, a trail where the cows rambled night- 
ly home from the river. By day the bovin« 
enjoyed the freedom of the Plaza, now a 
beautiful park in the center of the city, donat- 
ed for that purpose by Don Sebastian Rod- 
riguez in 1860. In the center of this park 
stands a magnificent Norway Pine, known as 
the Community Christmas Tree. So far as 
can be ascertained, this is the original outdoor 
Christmas tree of California, having been il- 
luminated and decorated for many years by 
the local Chamber of Commerce before the 
living Christmas tree movement was started 
elsewhere. It is listed and described by Win- 
field Scott in his "Famous Trees of Califor- 
nia." 

In the good old days, though scarcely "be- 
fore the Gringo came," since he was largely 
responsible, all bull and bear fights in Santa 
Cruz County took place Sundays at Whiskey 
Hill, a suburb of Watsonville, knov\n since 
the passage of the 18th amendment as "Free- 
dom." 

In 1851 the city was laid out by Judge J. 
H. Watson and was named in his honor. He 
served as district judge of Pajaro Valley and 
was state senator in 1859, never returning to 
the town, who so signally honored him. and no 
near relatives survive in this locality. This 
accounts for the lack of a Spanish title for a 
distinctly Spanish town and is regretted by 
many, both for the sake of euphony and from 
a historical standpoint. 

In closing, we again quote our historian: 
"Today Watsvnvillc is one of the most 
beautiful cities of California, with its rows of 
orderly bungalows, its range ol hill* and 
mountains climbing behind it to the blue 
horizon and the salt air facing in from 
the bay four miles away. Much tests upoa its 
shoulders as the business center of the iamou* 
Pajaro \'alley and the hub oi the entire Mon- 
terey Bay District." 



MKVKK'S 

DRY FALK lilNllKR ALE 

AND LIMKKK'KEV 

■Tkt Belif WMf»» 
..re obtainable in the Kedwotnl rnu«»' 

MKYER'S SODA WATER *-'<' 

Second and liuiii Siv. S«» R*»**'. *■'' 



I 



CALIFORXIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



27 




THE REDWOOD EMPIRE 

THE ROADWAY OF THE KINGS 

By Harry G Ridgway, Vice-President, Redwood Empire Association 

:;: :r :'" ::';;:".:ln:::,;:" .^e l., k.„. ,.. ,..,.. .c. n,o„„.ai„.. p.n,ev. ,o.... ™.n„. p«.. ,a„., „. 

its hot springs, its towering ranges, its sheltered valleys, where flourish 
some of the state's finest orchards, is one of the jewels of the Redwood 
Empire. ^ 

Sonoma County, scene of many of the most stirring intidents ni L ah- 
tornia's early history, and among the state's wealthiest agricultural 
areas, presents a variety of attractions that will stagger your imagination. 

A mighty petrified forest; geysers; the alluring Valley of the Moon 

made famous by the facile 



v»-, shimn>ering blue water, reflecting the lofty mountains sur- 
l:^3ng them; with rugged coastline, where beat the surging tides of 

the mighty Pacific. ,- , , , 

Picture a land of uindinf rivers, in whose waters game fish abound— a 
land of fertile fields, green pastures, luxuriant orchards and vine-clad hills. 
Vision scores of gay vacation resorts, bathing beaches, golf links, t nn 
uhite yachts and motor boats. 

Then place yourself in this picture, for all this an.l more nwaits 
you if you include the 
Redwood Empire in your 
itinerary when you come 
to San Francisco. 

The Redwood Empire 
includes the nine coastal 
counties of San Francisco. 
Marin, Sonoma, Napa, 
Lake, Mendocino. Hum- 
boldt and Del Norte in 
California, and Josephine 
in Oregon. 

When you come to San 
Francisco your natural de- 
sire will be to see all the 
Pacific Coast. If you 
come by the northern 
route, so desirable during 
the summer months, you 
will eventually find your- 
self at Grants Pass, Ore- 
gon, northerly terminus 
of the Redwood Empire 
and gateway to the Ore- 
gon Caves National Mon- 
ument. There you will 
commence a never-to-be- 
forgotten tour of a never- 
to-be-forgotten land. 




\,nety-stven ,nr cent oj the world's vdwoods stand tvithin the Raluood E>.p.n. 
The Reduood lUghxvay is lined for mor . than 100 miles u-itb their toivennff trunks. 



pen of the late Jack Lon- 
don ; the world-famed 
Russian River vacation 
land ; the old Russian set- 
tlement at Fort Ross; his- 
toric Sonoma Mission and 
the home of General Val- 
lejo. last of California's 
Spanish governors; the 
home and experimental 
gardens of the late Luther 
Burbank, beloved plant 
wizard. These are but a 
few of the galaxy of at- 
tractions th.1t Sonoma has 
to offer. 

Napa County, with its 
spouting water geysers ; 
its orchards ; vineyards 
and vast range areas; its 
mountains and forests — 
another wonderland in it- 
self awaits your inspection 
and offers you its share 
of thrills. 

Next there is Marin 
County — Marvelous Ma- 



rin it is called, and truly marvelous you will find it. Marin is essen- 

ruirXoi your ,rip a.,c.r a visit ,0 ,he .arve.ous Ore.o,, .ial'ly a c„,.,,.y of .„burban h„,™. a„bo,„h its a.ric>,U.,ra, resources 

CaTe^ w n b over , he scenic S,ni,h River d.vide .0 Crescent City, are of vast ,„,portance. 

count; sei of beautiful Del Norte County, most northerly of the Cali- ßut the scenic beauties of Marin and .ts recre.at.onal opportun.t.e. 

5:r :Les „f .. „cd^ood Empire and one of the nrost spec.acufar ^^Mt^^^^lr:" ^^ ^irJ^:^: 

"Trom XLe,:"," ^oTr' tour wi„ follow the Redwood 1 l.ghway to i;:',,,; Mt. Tanralpais, sent.ne. of the Golden Gate and paradise for 

Eureka pI^^nTthrÖugh some of the „,ost famous Redwood Groves; „,, hiker and picnicker. Muir Woods Nat.onal Monument and ,„ 

skirting the beetling clifls that overhang the Pacific, aloiig rushmy s|,|„aij system of scenic luglnvays. 



streams and past the placid lagoons of Humboldt County where gam, 

fihh abound. , 

An endless variety of scenery awaits you here as well as m t!>e re 

mainder of the Redwood Empire. 

From the Oregon line south the highway passes through more than 

a hundred miles of redwood forest, with age-old trees, many of which 

tower to a height of almost 4ÜU feet, with a diameter of thirty feet ni 

more. , ■ ■ I ■ I I 

Nincty-8cvcn per cent of the world's redwoods stand «itlnn the boi 



And then, after a short trip across the bay you will be in San Fran- 
cisco—San Francisco, beloved around the world, the convention city. 
This briefly is what is i.i store for you if you make your decision to 
visit the Redwood Empire-America's newest national playground. 

The Redwood Empire Association, non-profit, inter-county chamber 
,.f commerce, is at your service to aid you in arrangirig your tour. 

Folders and booklets more fully describing the nuyhty Rcdwootl 
Empire will be gladly sent you if you will address the as>ac.atum s 



der» of the Redwood Emiurc. . i:,uii»in; »■" -- » ' 

The trip from Eureka to San Francisco is one that abounds with pos- ^^_^^^^_^j ^^^^^ j,, j;.,„ irrancisco. 
abilities for enjoyment presenting the most remarkable diversity o ^_^^^_^^^.^^^ .^ Cdihrma unJ /« 

«enery imaginable with counties, natu.al an.l historic points of nUerest ^J^^^;j;;^^^;;^^l,J;J,,_,L „,ost sprC.eul.^ ^r^"«. *''--" 

'■" route. ... - I ■ ,. ,/ ;.n.„f,i,n Wnshinulun nud liyin^h Culumbiit. 

Humboldt County, with iu vü*t redwood forests, its nulL. .ts dairy i.aUforntn On.un. W ashm.t 



2S 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



HUMBOLDT COUNTY 

ITS EARLY HISTORY 



HE EARLY liistory of Humboldt 
County was idetitiiied with tlie 
search for a safe harbor on the Cali- 
fornia coast. Cabrlllo and Ferrelo, 
the earliest Spanish navigators, fail- 
ed to see the land as far north as Cape Men- 
docino. Drake merely indicated a receding 




Cli'iir Lnke, in Lake Cfjunty. is ihf larg- 
est hfjily of fresh water entin-ly 
in California. 

shore north of that cape. Viscaino placed a 
"Great Bay" just north of Cape Mendocino 
without the peculiar landlocked characteristics 
of the present bay. Bodega and Heceta en- 
tered Trinidad Bay on Trinity Sunday. June 
9, 1775, this being the first record of a land- 
ing having been made in this county. Trinidad 
Head is now marked by a granite cross erect- 
ed in memory of those early explorers. The 
Colonial Documents of the "Russian American 
Company" record the fact that a sea-otter 
party under command of Jonathan Winship, 
an American, entered Humboldt Bay in 1806, 
giving it the name of Bay of Rcsenof. Other 
Russian vessels may have visited it, but never- 
theless it remained practically unknown until 
the country came into the possession of the 
United States. 

Prior to that time the "Great Bay" on this 
coast was supposed to be the mouth of what is 
now known as the Klamath River (but then 
designated as the Trinity) and to be within 




Oti'ji.n C.avii Nato.Hid Muniimint in 

Jotefihirir (Jnuntji, Ortym. it a 

uorhi aftraitiiin. 



the bounds of Oregon Territory. This would 
have given the United States a good harbor 
with ample anchorage within the houndaric'i 
of the territory known as Washington and 
Oregon. The Trinity River was thought to 
pass through both the Cascade and Coast 
Range of Mountains, which shows that the 
Klamath was actually in mind. When the 
Territory of California was ceded to the 
United States it became all the more advan- 
tageous to command a good harbor between 
the Columbia River and the Golden Gate. 
The desire of the L'nited States Government 
to locate such a harbor establishes the discov- 
ery of Humboldt Bay not as the accident it is 
generally believed to have been, but the out- 
come of a well planned effort by the govern- 
mental authorities to discover the same. 

The first actual discovery of Humboldt Bay, 
on which Eureka is now located, was made by 
an American crew from the ship O'Cain, of 
the Great Russian American Company, head- 
ed by Capt. Jonathan Winship. in the year 
1806. With over two score of small boats 



near what is now known as WeavcrvilJc in 
Trinity County. The party, after many hard- 
.sbips, rediscovered Humboldt Bay and named 
it 'I'ritiity, not knowinj; of its earlier name of 
Indian Bay. 

In 1S5II boats from San Francisco were 
making a search of the coast and Capt. Ottin- 
ger of the "Laura Virginia" diwrovcrcd the 
entrance to Humboldt Bay and the boat an- 
chored therein. On hoard «as >erond officer 




Douglas Memaral Bridge, healed on 
the Redwood Highway 



Buhne. This party named the bay Humboldt, 
after the great naturalist and traveler, Baron 
Alexander Von Humboldt. The same year 
saw the location of Eureka estabhshed. it 
being realized by these enterprising explorers 
that, on account of the deepness of the water 
found in the bay, the present site of Eureka 
was the only place for the town, which 
was named Humboldt City. The Government 
established a land office, but the register at 
Washington failed to locate any such place 
and in their search of the records a Congress- 
man from Missouri located it and exclaimed 
"I have found it," from which e.\prcssion the 
city «as named "Eureka." 

During the winter of 1852-1853 a military 

post was established on Humboldt Heights 

'or protection of the residents from the Indians 

I he late Lnther BurhmdS honu and c.xper,mentahxk}y Captain U. S. Grant in command of the 




gardens in Sonoma County. 

and manned by Alieut Indians aboard, the 
O'Cain anchored about twenty-five miles 
north of Eureka and the men spread out aft- 
er the the much hunted sea-otter. It was 
during this search that Capt. Winship and 
some of his men discovered Humboldt Ray 
and found the obscure entrance to it. Later 
the (^'Cain «as sailed into the bay and hove 
anchor opposite where Eureka now stands. .At 
that lime there were only (ifteen (eet of water 
on the harbor entrance, compared with the 
thirty feet depth at the present time. Indian 
villages were everywhere on the shores ot the 
bay and the little party named it Indian Ma> , 
In 1K4H, when news of the discovery of gold 
in California began to spread to the utnui>t 
parts of the earth, about forty miners, headed 
by Dr. Josiah Gregg of Missouri, explorer, 
author, trader and employee of the govern 
ment, set out over the mountains endeavorint; 
to discover the re|)orted harbor, At tlie three 
tion of the gmcriuneiit they proceeded north 
to lind the Trinity River and to follow the 
same to its mouth. In November, 1840, they 
had arrived at a point on the Trinity River 



post, which was known as Fort Humboldt. 
Furt Humboldt consisted of about a dozen 
buildings, three of them being used as bar- 
racks. Due to the fact that the climate was 
not .severely cold the fort was not ver>- well 
built and gradually fell into ruias. The last 
buildings to remain were used as warehouses, 
but the Fort was entirely obliterated by I*)l I. 



\ 




^iiiiniiiiinij and ,..iltt ./>«**, J,,«. l'^>Ju^,;^4.l^ .i.^,,» 

to Ihr Russian River. hquU as ike pUy^ruuiU 

of SurlketH CaliffUHiu. 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



29 



NAPA COUNTY 




APA VALLEY is one of the garden 
spots of tilt' uorld. As a place to 
establish a Iionic and actually live 
it is not to he surpassed by any 
county in California. Its healthful 
and eguabk- climate, its productiveness of soil, 
its varieties of cereals, fruits and flou'crs, its 
scenic beauties, its jagged nioiintains and peace- 
ful valleys, its precipices and canyons, its riv- 
ulets and streams. Its waterfalls, artesian «cIls 
and spouting geysers cannot be exaggerated or 
overdrawn by the facile pen of man. 

Napa County is located north of San Pablo 
Bay, a small strip of land separating from this 
extension of San Francisco Hay, A division 
of the Coast Range Mountains marks its boun- 
dary on the west from Sonoma County and on 
the north from Lake County. Another branch 
of mountains separates it on the south from 
Yolo County, while an arbitrary line marks 
the southeast boundary from Solano County, 
the entire county comprising the main ( Napa) 
Valley being forty miles long and varying in 
width from three to ten miles. 

The climate of Napa V^allcy is ideal from 
the agriculturists' standpoint of view, as well 
as being invigorating and healthful for those 
who work and make their homes here. The 
annual mean temperature is SS.l degrees, and 
there is an average of 2511 cloudless days each 
year, yet there is a generous supply of rain — 
average of 24 inches fails annually. Such an 
ideal climate means a twelve months growing 
season for the farmer and adequate time and 
facilities for both work and recreation to all 
those engaged in ind ustry. Both employers 
and employees have advantages of an equable 
moderate climate which are e.Tsily discerned — 
no delays due to climatic conditions, but brisk, 
invigorating and healthful climate day after 
day to produce the maximum of efficiency and 
contentment. While you are spending your 
day in your chosen occupation your family at 
home is enjoying the same invigorating, health- 
ful climate. How much this means to women 
and children in the home, and especially to the 
latter to he out of doors practically every day 
in the year. Napa Valley is famous for its 
health-giving properties, there being scores of 
health and pleasure resorts located throughout 
the valley. 

'I"he hills and mountains of Napa County 
contain quantities of valuable minerals in- 
cluding quicksilver, chrome, magnesite and 
various pottery brick and tile clay. Quick- 
silver particularly is mified commercially, and 
the recent changing of properties indicates re- 
newed activitii'!* ill mining in the county. -Al 
ready three large ones have reopened. 

The soil of the county is a deep alimal 
loam, very rich and productive — anything 
grown anywhere grows everywhere in Napa 
County. 

The total area of Napa County ih 7H,1 
square iiiile» or 501,120 acres. The farm are.i 
lompriu« IHSfil'i acre». 



Charles Gradv, 
Secretary-Manager. Napa Chamber of Commerce. 

Apples rank fourth in acreage — the southern 
section of the county as well as the slopes of 
the hills being a favored district for apples. 
The Gravenstein is the principal commercial 
variety, although a number of other varieties 
are grown. 

Cherries rank fifth in acreage — Royal Anne, 
Bings and many other varieties are raised. The 
entire cherry crop is shipped east, bringing the 
highest prices because of exceptional quality 
and flavor due to climatic conditions. 

Walnuts, which are grown very extensive- 
ly in Napa County, are of a high quality and 
flavor. Napa ualnuts won first prize at the 
Panama Pacific International Exposition in 
1915. Other fruits and nuts raised here arc: 
apricots, oranges, lemons, grapefruit, persim- 
mons, aligator pears, peaches, plums, figs, 
olives, almonds, pecans, chestnuts and hickory 
nuts. The former crops have so far been 
found to be more profitable as a major crop. 
All Napa County producers arc getting max- 
imum returns from their products. 

Land values in Napa Valley are not in- 
flated, taves are verj' reasonable and living 
conditions good. In fact, it is said that the 
cost of a good average of a standard of living 
is 25 per cent less here than in most larger 
«estern cities. 

In addition to the soil, water, climate and 
marketing facilities, the next important factor 
for success is that of transportation — in this 
respect Napa County is well situated. From 
the City of Napa radiate five concrete high- 
ways, all of which are main arteries of travel. 
Over these splendid highways the produce of 
the valley is brought to the excellent distrib- 
uting center of Napa. This thriving city is 
only 46 miles from San Francisco, the great- 
est shipping and marketing center of the west. 
The San Fr-mclsco, Napa and Calistoga Rail- 
way (electric) In conjunction with the Golden 
Gate Steamship Company, connects all of the 
county with San Francisco, since the line starts 
at the extreme end of the valley, and has load- 
ing stations at intervals of every few miles 
through the valley. 

The Southern Pacific Railroad runs the full 
length of Napa Valley, giving the valley direct 
connections with Eastern points as well !ls San 
Francisco and all Bay points, thus Napa is 
served by railroads, river and motor bus trans- 
portation. 

The Napa River Is navigable as far as the 
City of Napa and is used for freight service 
to points on San Francisco Bay. Due to com- 
petitive tr.iiisportatlon, freight and express 
latcs are very tavorable to the producei. ( )ver- 
niglil freight service to San Francisco is an 
advantage. The improvement of this river 
by the L'nitcd States t iovcrnmeiit has been 
tccommended. A resurvey has been urdeved. 
The im()ntvements call for the widening and 
ileepening of the channel to H feet at a cost 
of approximately I^I.^S.IIIHI. Another impnive- 
mi'nl on this tivrr is t(J i-Ntalilhli a v;uht liiir- 



bor at the City of Napa by the citizetw of 
Napa. This will provide a home for the 
many yacht clubs from the Bay cttlcs who now 
use the Napa River for their week-end cruises, 
and will provide a place for boat racing, water 
carnivals and swimming. Napa River is noted 
for its wonderful bass fishing and attracts hun- 
dreds of fishermen from all parts of the state. 

There is a State Highway which runs the 
length of the valley and connects with other 
state highways connecting with the Redwood, 
Pacific and Lincoln Higiiways. 

With the completion of the Carquinez 
Bridge, the largest highway bridge in the 
world, 4,482 feet long, 30 feet «ide for autos 
and two 4-foot sidewalks for pedestrians on 
each side, we have direct connection with Oak- 
land and the Ray District. This bridge was 
built at a cost ot eight million dollars, con- 
struction W.1S started on April 2, 1923, and it 
W.1S opened to traffic on May 21. 1927. Since 
we have this britige we have only one short 
ferry to San Francisco and it takes only two 
hours, while Oakland takes only an hour and a 
quarter. Sacr.imento, the capital of the state, 
can be reached in a two hours drive over fine 
highways. One can leave Napa and drive to 
San Diego via the Carquinez Bridge over 
highway the full length of the journey with- 
out ferrying once on the entire trip, also to 
Portland and Seattle. These marketing facil- 
ities and the value of Napa as a distributing 
center are equally valuable to manufacturers. 
For the manufacturer. Napa has six basic in- 
dustrial advantages: Accessibility of raw ma- 
terials, low priced po\\er in abundance, labor 
supplied with ideal living conditions, the 
transportation facilities already mentioned 
and an ever-increasing market for manufac- 
tured products. Specific instances have been 
collected to prove the advantages here for a 
Pacific Coast manufacturer, and Napa was 
highly recommended. These instances proved 
a differential in labor cost beca\ise of excep- 
tionally ailvantagcotis climatic conditions. A 
manufacturer here finds labor at least 25 per 
cent more efficient than elsewhere, producing 
a higher type of employee. Every day is an 
ideal day for working employees. 

At the |)resent time located in Napa arc: 
The Kclg Shoe Factory, Cameron Shirt Fac- 
tory, Sawyer Tanning Company, California 
Glove Company, Ferro Glove Company, Napa 
Paper Box I'actnry. Napa Riverside Creamery, 
Boman's Dairy, .Modern Dairy. Napa Fruit 
Company. Basalt Rock Company, Erringtoii 
Rock Company, and many other smaller con- 
cetiis. 

I'he SaM u'r Tanning Company i& turning 
out a very high grade nf patent leather— this 
is the only patent lejither tannery west of Chi- 
cago. Over one million pairs of shoes have 
been made in the past year, both ladies' and 
men's, from this leather. 

'I"he lessie Seal Dahlia Faim is the Urgot 
(arm m the v\estrin muntiv I here >oii n\4V 



30 



CALIFORNIA TOTTRNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



M-c the finest and largest display of prize-uin- 
iiing dahlias in Northern Cah'fornia. The 
dahlias are in bloom from the middle of Aug- 
ust until the middle of November, during 
which time the large field is a glorious mass 
of colors. 

The Keig Shoe Factory is turning out a 
good first-class work shoe, also a semi-dress 
shoe, and athletic shoe. They are the only 
makers of this kind of shoe on the Pacific 
Coast. This grou-ing concern has just moved 
into its new location «hich gives it over double 
its former floor space. With this additional 
space they will enter into the making of 
women's shoes, with the output in tliis line of 
approximately 1000 pairs a day. This output 
will mean a substantial increase in their al- 
ready large payroll. 

The Cameron Shirt Cnmpany ha\e enlarged 
their plant this year in Napa by the consolida- 
tion of their former plant at Santa Rosa to 
their Napa plant, which gives theni ample 
room for doubling their capacity, which they 
»'ill be compelled to do this year, to take care 
of their growing business. 

Another substantial addition has been added 
to our manufacturing industries by the S. G. 
I/isher and Charles Ratto firm, known as Lish- 
er & Ratto in the CLIM-ER-EGE way of 
laying linoleum. They have solved the prob- 
lem of sanitary floor covering. Lisher & Ratto 
are one of the largest users of linoleum in the 
West, having connections with over 50 stores 
extending from San Diego to the Oregon line. 
Patent was granted May 17. 1929; name reg- 
istered in U. S. Patent Office. 

The manufactured goods in Napa are ship- 
ped all over the L^^nited States. Nearby re- 
sources of raw materials contribute one of the 
first factors of the location of these industries 
in Napa. 

An abundance of low cost electric power 
is the second factor. Napa County is now 
served by two electric power companies, and 
with the completion of the dam for the City 
of Napa Municipal Water Supply it now has 
another source of cheap hydro-electric power. 

A generous supply of permanent labor is 
assured because workers are home people who 
enjoy the advantages of good housing condi- 
tions, high standard of living, healthful cli- 
mate and a semi-country life in preference to 
that of a congested city. Diversified indus- 
tries supply employment for whole families. 

The West is growing more and more all the 
time to depend upon its own western indus- 
tries to supply its needs, so Napa County prod- 
ucts not only have a huge demand here in the 
West, but also have adequate manufacturing 
and transportation facilities «-ith which to 
meet competition beyond the Rocky Moun- 
tains. 

In a survey of the industries already located 
In Napa County, there was shown a unani- 
mous expression of satisfaction for the indus- 
trial advantages of other industries, both kin- 
dred and similar. I'or inst.uicc a shoe manu- 
facturer will welcome additional shoe manu- 
facturen*. f)r a shirt manufacturer will gladly 
»hare the facilities he now enjoys to newcom- 
cri, etc., for the raw products, power, labor, 



and other facilities arc more than ade<|uatc. 
Such addition means the growth and upbuild- 
ing of Napa and at the same time go to supply 
the growing demand for western products 
made by western people. 

Napa has many potential factory sites. Sev- 
eral thousand acres of level land arc within 
and around the City of Napa. These sites arc 
adaptable for both large and small concerns. 

You who seek employment in the West so 
that you may live here and enjoy its many ad- 
vantages will find ideal working conditions. 
Salaries and wages in Napa are good, aver- 
aging higher than most manufacturing local- 
ities. The average of a good standard of liv- 
ing here is approximately 25 per cent lower, 
as has already been said. The City of Napa 
has exceptionally good housing facilities, or if 
preferred, the freedom of a small tract out- 
side the city yet near work can be enjoyed. 
Many people of limited means own their own 
homes and really enjoy life in the suburbs. 

Napa is an ideal location for workers, it is 
an ideal home city. The support of many 
churches, schools and civic organizations add 
to its high moral tone. 

Napa has an exceptional educational system 
which includes the Union High School at a 
cost of $500,000. Intermediate, many fine 
new grammar schools, and business colleges. 

The population of Napa is approximately 
8,000 people and is made up of a permanent 
class engaged in industrial, professional, and 
business pursuits. 

Napa has a $25.000 Public Library, two 
daily newspapers, two building and loan as- 
sociations, three strong banks, these banks 
having sufficient capital and adequate available 
surplus to finance legitimate new buildings. 

Napa owns its own municipal water supply 
— by means of a single arch dam of concrete, 
112 feet high and 743 feet long at the crest, 
located at the end of a narrow gorge in the 
Milliken Canyon some ten miles north of the 
city, this fornu'ng an artesian lake of pure, 
soft mountain water suitable in every way for 
domestic and industrial purposes. This lake 
impounds six hundred and four million gallons 
of water yearly and provides an adequate sup- 
ply for many years to come. 

In addition the City of Napa has all the 
facilities of a modern western city — miles of 
paved streets, sanitation, telegraph, telephone, 
gas and electric systems and beautiful homes 
surrounded by marvelous gardens. Napa after 
all is a Home Citv and an ideal place to live. 

There arc more beautiful and scenic home 
sites available in Napa Valley than in any part 
of the western country. These home sites arc 
suitable both for the retired business man or 
business men who arc looking for a nice, quiet 
place to live and raise their families out in the 
balmy sunshine. The men who work can en- 
joy the same privileges. 

The prices on these home sites are very rea- 
sonable. They should be seen to apitreciate 
the wonderful locations and scemc beauties. 

On lu-hall of the Napa Chamber of Com 
merce and citi/,ens of Napa, i extend to you a 
cordial invitation to come to Napa and in- 
vestigate. 



Points of Interest 
Around Petaluma 



p 



I''' KTALUMA has niiu-HTn hatch- 
erics, one of which is the largest in 
the world. Visitors are always wel- 
come and shown every courtesy 
Lj upon the occasion of their visit. 

Another interesting industry is the manufac- 
ture of silk thread by the Hehüng-Heminway 
Company, who operate the only mill wc« of 
Belding, Michigan. 

The Poultry Producers of Central Califor- 
nia operate their largest plant in Petaluma, 
where visitors have the opportunity of seeing 
millions of eggs going through the process of 
grading, cleaning, processing and packing. 

In addition to these we have many other 
industries such as creameries, feed mills, box 
factories, etc., which can be visited by those 
interested in these particular lines of work. 

Two and one-half miles east of Petaluma is 
the "Old Adobe" built by Genera! Vallejo in 
1836 and used as his headquarters during the 
days of the Spanish regime in California. This 
is now cared for by the Native Sons and is 
open to visitors- 

The Valley of the Moon, made famous by 
Jack London, is situated fourteen miles from 
Petaluma. Points of interest in this section 
are Boyes Hot Springs, Fetters Springs, Agua 
Caliente, the Mission San Francisco de Solano 
at Sonoma, founded in 1823, which is the 
twenty-first and last mission completed by 
Father Junipero Serra in his chain of Cali- 
fornia nussions along "El Camino Real." 
Many other historic spots such as the old Gen- 
eral Hooker ranch. General \"alleja"s home, 
the old Blue Wing Dance Hall and the spot 
where the Bear Flag was raised by the Cali- 
fornia Republic on June 4. 18-(6, are to be 
found in the \'alley of the Moon. 

Fifteen miles north of Petaluma, at Santa 
Rosa, is the home of Luther Burbank and his 
gardens. This historic spot is the niecca for 
tourists traveling the Redwood Highway. 

The famous Russian River resort colon> can 
be reached in an hour's drive from Pelalunu. 
where beneath the rcdwoo»ls hiking. bt«ling, 
bathing, dancing and other kindred sport* are 
enjoyed by thousands. Near by are the B*^ 
hemian and Armstrting Groves ol ledwco^i - 

A few miles farther north stands Kort Ras 
another historic structure, erevted by the Ko.. 
siatis in ISI I. 

All of ihene points arc accessible o\tf fO" ' 
roatls aiiit through a cuuntrv profuse wi b 
scenic beauty. 

Near Clo^e^iaIe, « hivh is 4" nulr. ir.« i 
IVtaliuna, steam Kr\>er> dir found. Ibi-s !■■ 
the oidy jilace in the world outudr ol lla'» 
where natural steam out ol the ground i» bcui^ 
harne«cd to create power. 

\\'iihin twrnty-sevrii milw o( Ptialun« >» 
a petritied forest whric irte» luim umr mi"«*' 
lo stone atay be viewed. Ihesr liec» h**e b«o 
unearthed and are now in pUin *tew in ih« 
Position ill which they tell. 



J 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



31 



PETALUMA 

'The Worlfs Egg Baskcr 

fiy Dnij'il Voi NG, Scrretary. Pctaluma Clwmher of Commmc 



|,AQ^! ESTLINC; in tlic bosom of the lulls 

nJyf surroiimliiig the Petalunia Valley. 

replete with the history of early 

California, lies the City of Pcta- 

, '"'"a- Situated at the headquarters 

of the Petaliima River, this beauty spot was 
ideally located from a geographical stand- 
point to attract the early pioneer, as it was 
obviously much easier to transport goods by 
water than attempt the laborious task of trans- 
porting them by pack train over land. 

The first authentic history dates back to 
the early days of navigation, for in 1579 Sir 
Francis Dr;ike landed on the Pacific Coast 
twenty miles west of I'etalunia. 

In 1775 Captain Quiros and a party of ex- 
plorers seeking a uateruay to Hodcga Hay, 
to the west of Petaluma, gained the entrance 
of the Petaluma River. This «as the first 
trip into what is now Sonoma County, the un- 
dertaking requiring a great amount of time, 
labor and endurance. 

In 1H36 f General Mariano G. N'allejo built 
the first house in the great valley on a grant 
known as the Petaluma Rnncho. Here agri- 
cultural and industrial activities were begun. 
In the large two-story adobe d«elling. with 
its large and commodious wings were store- 
houses and factories ^\hcre blankets were 
woven and leather tanned for saddles, harness, 
boots and shoes. Great quantifies of wheat and 
barley were raised on the fertile land sur- 
rounding General Vallejo's headquarters. The 
"Old Adobe," as it is now familiarly known, 
IS still standing in a firm state of preservation 
^\m\ is the mecca for thousands of tourists 
every year. 

I-rom 1840, on, pioneers seeking the mild- 
ness of California's climate and the fertility 
of her soil, began migrating to this section. 
After many weary days of toil, an.\iety and 
fatigue they viewed miles upon miles of inter- 
mingled grain fields, wM oats growing in 
marvelous profusion. \i'ild flowers of every 
prismatic shade, beautiful forests that chal- 
lenged human imagination and living streams 
that wended their way lazily from the water- 
sheds of the Sonoma Mountains to the Peta- 
luma River. 

In IH78 Lyman C. Bycc, a young Canadian, 
came into this valley in search of health. This 
he found in the salt air, wafted in from the 
Pacific Ocean but eighteen miles to the west 
which keeps the temperature relatively the 
same throughout the year, and decided to make 
Petaluma his home. Through his keen ob- 
servation he saw the natural advantages for 
the production of poultry so he sent bac k to his 
former home for White Leghorn hens and 
started to develoj) what was then the largest 
flotk of Leghorns to be found in California. 
Mr, Hycc, being an inventive genius, con- 
•^^ived the idea of artificial incubation, and 
alter many yrars of t-xperimenting produced 
hit fir« incubator and Bubiequently became the 



foster father of millions of orphaned chicks. 
From this beginning Mr. Bycc developed a 
thriving business and has lived to see his in- 
cubators and brooders used throughout the 
entire world. 

Petaluma has become the largest poultry 
center in the world, the community that has 
initiated more forward movements in behalf 
of poultry, which has rightfully earned for it- 
self, because of these things, the title of "The 
World's Egg Basket," but it was largely due 
to those men of vision, faith, and confidence 
in Petaluma's future, and the ability, initiative 
anil energy to back up that vision, as well as 
ideas and energy of many others in Petaluma 
that «orked together, never at any time spar- 
ing energy, faith, confidence, support and co- 
operation in anything worth while. 

On this splendid foundation a gigantic in- 
dustry has been built producing annually 
45,01)0,000 dozen eggs, the value of which 
when added to other poultry products amounts 
to about 5^15,000,000 per year for the poultry 
farmers. 

Reason being the cardinal principle which 
governs all things, it is natural to assume 
that there must be a fundamental reason why 
Petaluma, as a locality, is so admirably adapt- 
ed to poultry raising. This can readily be ex- 
plained when it is understood that there are 
three principal elements, necessary to make a 
success of poultry raising, namely: proper soil, 
climatic conditions and proper marketing and 
transportation facilities. These we have in 
Petaluma, they being the underlying reasons 
why this district has been so successful and 
stands foremost among the poultry districts of 
the ii'orld. 

T he soil is a sandy soil, not too hot m sum- 
mer and not too cold in winter, which allows 
poultry freedom of the outdoors the year 
round. We have three hundred days of sun- 
shine during the year. 

Marketing conditions in Petaluma are fa- 
vorable. The majority of our poultrymen de- 
liver their eggs twice or three times a week 
either to local branches of large indcpentlent 
commission firms in San Francisco, to hatch- 
cries, to bay city grocers or to the farmers' 
cooperative marketing association. The return 
is practically immediate as the poultrymen re- 
ceives his check for one delivery when he 
brings in the next. 

Petaluma is well served in the matter of 
transportation. It is on the main line of the 
Northwestern Pacr/ic Railroad and the ter- 
minus of the Petaluma and Santa Rosa Rail- 
road System. These railroads with their 
branches afford rapid and modern passenger 
and freight service, 

Petaluma is located at the head of naviga- 
tion on the I'etalunia River, an arm of San 
Francisco Hay, which |)rovidcs tidewatei 
transportation and 8ut)plics reasonable freight 
service to and from a large portion of the 



central part of the state. The Petaluma and 
Santa Rosa Railroad Company operates two 
large steamers, making daily trips bet^vcen 
Petaluma and San Francisco, as well as other 
metropolitan areas, carrying freight. Other 
transportation companies operate steamers and 
barges to this port, transporting feed, lumber, 
oil and other commodities. 

Petaluma enjoys the advantage of having 
all industries allied with the poultry industry 
in its midst. It is only natural that a major 
industry operating successfully is immediately 
surrounded by other industries, supplying its 
wants. 

This district has the largest hatching ca- 
pacity in the world, in fact the largest single 
hatchery in the world is located here. We 
have factories that manufacture incubators for 
hatching chicks; brooders for brooding them; 
others that make cases to ship the eggs in! 
fillers and pads for protecting the eggs dur- 
ing shipment ; sheet metal works making drink- 
ing fountains, ventilators, etc. Petaluma also 
enjoys the distinction of having the only silk 
mill located west of Bclding, Michigan. 

Petaluma's system of public and private 
schools is up-to-date in every respect and no- 
where in California will be found better edu- 
cational facilities. There are four primary 
and grammar schools, a junior high school and 
an accredited high school. In addition to these 
there is an endowed kindergarten and St. Vin- 
cents Academy, the latter a Catholic school of 
high standing. Free bus transportation is fur- 
nished daily, enabling the rural pupils to at- 
tend the High and Junior High Schools. 

The City of Petaluma has a population of 
8,245, and the afTairs of the city are admin- 
istered by a city council consisting of a mayor 
and six councllmen, who give our city an 
efficient and economical government. 

Petaluma is adequately served with light. 
power, gas and water. 

Financially, Petaluma Is being served by the 
American Trust Company, and the Bank of 
America. Two building and loan associations 
and two local finance companies are also situat- 
ed In this city. The combined bank deposits 
for I9.?0 vvTre $12.000.000. 

With three up-to-date theatres in our city 
wc are well supplied with entertainment. 
Practically every fraternal organization Is rep- 
resented here, which, with the women's clubs, 
add to the social life of our city. 

Petaluma is situated eighteen miles from 
the Pacific Ocean where fishing and bathing 
arc enjoyed, fourteen miles from the "\*alley 
of the Moon," with its hot springs, and about 
a twenty-eight-mile drive from the famous 
Russian River with Its beautiful scenery and 
beaches. Splendi.l striped bavs fi'shlng Is also 
to be had in the Petaluma River, which runs 
through the heart of our city. Just outside 
the limits of our city we have the Petaluma 
Golf and Country Club with its beautiful club 
house where thasc that enjoy the thrill of 
golfing seek their recreation. Deer hunting, 
duck hunting and trttul fishing are also favor- 
ite sports und can be enjoyed In the mountains 
.uid marshes surrounding our city. 



c^u^m^^}^]^^^.^^^^^=^^^ 



^^^^^J'onTentYoÄ Center 




TRATEGICALLY located m a re- 
gion nf romantic charm and scenic 
enchantment, Sacramento, the cap- 
ital of California, is widely recog- 
Tv. nizcd as one of America's Icadmg 
^^and convention centers Rad.atmg m 
all directions are highways and radwaystak- 

ng the traveler to California's world- an.ou. 
atfractions and through the glamorous land of 

the ereat gold rush of '49. 

The fo!r National Parks of Califonua are 

located along the main highway wh.ch runs 
north and south through Sacramento d 
countless other places of scemc and h^tor c 
interest lie within the territory of wh.ch Sac- 
ramento is the geographical center. _ 

Besides offering these many attractions for 
the pleasure and enjoyment of tounsts, Sac- 
ramento has won notable prominence as a con- 
vention city. Excellenthotelfaaht.es anew 
million-dollar civic auditormm, a _3^ÜUU- 
capacity stadium, numerous convention halls. 
golf courses and recreational places plus the 
natural beauty of the city with its thousands 

of trees and scores of parks and plazas, have 
put Sacramento forward in this respect, with 
the result that from forty to sixty national, 
regional and state conclaves are held m the 
capital each year. 

Capitol Park, in the heart of Sacramento, is 
recognized as one of America's finest beauty 
spots. Its profusion of flowers, trees and shrubs 
representative of ever>- country on the face o 
the globe, are a never-failing source of delight 
to the visitor, and the glory of the scene .s 
further enhanced by the stately dome of the 
capitol building, rising like a glittering jewel 
above the magnificent verdure embraced with- 
in the forty-acre area of the park. 

No section of California is more remm.scent 
of the West's romantic pioneer history than 
"The Mother Lode" section in the foothi Is 
to the east of Sacramento which formed the 
backbone of the great gold strike of 49 and 
'SO. Extending from Grass Valley and Nevada 
City on the north, down through Coioma, 
where Marshall made his first epochal discov- 
ery on January 24, 1848, through Placerv.Uc 
Plymouth. Jackson. San Andreas, Angels and 
Sonora to the south, it is a district rich in his- 
toric value, and interesting to the present day 
by the reason of the fact that millions m gol.l 
are still being extracted annually m the great 
mines, many of them with workings a mile 

underground. , m i 

History of the gold rush days on the Mothe 

Lode has been in.mortali.ed in the writings of 
liret Harte and Mark Twain-ilartc s Luck 
of Roaring Camp." and Twains Jumpm« 
Frog of Calavera-s," perhaps the most note.l 
of all Mark Twain's cabin on Jackass Hill. 
Tuolumne County, i. still standing to his 

memory. , , , 

Here on "TIk- Mütlu-r I,oclc" were (u.inJe.l 

tht fortuii« of famlli« wimse nam« loom 

larur in CalHornia's lust.,ry-tht CioiLiM., 



Hopki,., Hunrinpon. Lc.aod S.an.or.., and 
"'th; center and starting places for .he study 
„,^- Historic re.o„^^-^^;'j;:^I 

Fork of the American River. James W_Ma 
shall, one of Sutter's lieutenants, made th.s 
discovery which rocked the world. 

Two hours' ride to the east and north IS 

Grass Valley, center of a twenty-five m.l 
circle which since '49 has yielded upwards of 

$800,000.000 of precious ^old-practic y 
L-third of all the present gold in the United 

States. Deeper and deeper have the m mers 
delved in their quest of the precious metal un- 
til at this time they are working m some m^ 
stances 6.300 feet below the surface on wh.ch 
the original placer strikes were made. To tho^ 
who like to explore the early-day gold history 
are the picturesque "ghost cities of You Bet 
Town Talk, God's Country, Grub Flat. Red 
Dog Rough and Ready, and a score of others 
whose picturesque nomenclature tell their own 

story. 

Southward is Placer County, where, at Col- 
fax Horace Greeley started on that mem- 
orable stage ride with Mark Twain, and near 
which are other historic spots— Last Chance, 
Shirt Tail Canyon, Codfish Canyon. Adjoin- 
ing Placer is El Dorado County, with Coioma 
where the gold strike was first made, and 
PI acerville— known in the early days as 
"Hangtown" from the fact that law breakers 
were hanged first singly and then in pairs- 
where Studebaker. since builder of great 
wealth in the automobile industry, laid the 
foundation of that wealth in his blacksmith 

shop. 

Amador County, next south, known as 
"The Heart of the Mother Lode," is still pro- 
ducing heavily, particularly near Jackson 
where arc found the famous Argonaut and 
Kennedy mines, two of the deepest gold mines 
in the world. And so on through the active 
mining centers and "ghost towns" of Cala- 
veras, Tuolumne and Mariposa Counties, it 
is a land of never-ending interest. A scenic 
section, too. well worthy a visit even if with 
no thought of its glamorous early-day romance. 
And a productive land, whose fruits and farm 
products are adding to present day wt-altl. 
much greater returns than were ever yielded 
tn the labor of the red-shiited miners. 

The four great Naliomil Patks in Caliturma 
he within this region, five of its six Natinii.il 
Monuments, fourteen of its eighteen National 

Forests. 

Should the visitor have the time and the in- 
clination, a different rrMirt could he visUrd 
every day in the year, and still it wimld takr 
more tlun twu loll years to iiuk« iht round 



of the mountain, valley and «acoast campi 
and hotels already operating in this wonder 
region. And all within little more than a com- 
fortable half-day's motor drive from Sacra- 
mento, and equally accessible by train or mo- 
tor stage. 

Starting at the south with General Gram 
and Sequoia National Parks, and traveling 
northward through the beautiful Siena 
Nevada Mountains to Mount Lassen and 
glorious Mount Shasta at the north, are accm- 
stant succession of scenic wonders which sur- 
pass in interest and grandeur anything of like 
nature to be found in any other land under the 

sun. 

Yosemite Valley, with its dashing waterfalls 
and its towering granite buttresses. chaUeng« 
the language and the pen of man ^or descnp- 
tion. Still near to Sacramento are the Calt 
veras Big Tree groves, first discovered and 
most northerly of the gigantic redwooda. 
largest and oldest of living things known m 
the world today. 

On the road to these groves from Angeb» 
on the Mother Lode Highway, are Mercer's 
Cave and Moaning Cave, Uvo of the largest 
and most interesting subterranean wonders yet 
discovered. 



Directly eastward from Sacramento a four- 
hour motor tour is the gem of the Sierras, 
matchless Lake Tahoe. 6225 feet above sea 
level and the largest body of water at thai 
elevation in the world. 

Tahoe. though the largest, is only one of a 
thousand gem lakes in this area-Donner. In- 
dependence, Echo. Fallen Leaf. --Umanor. ■ 
Gold, Eagle— all teeming with trout, the joy 
of every fisherman. 

Equallv .attractive from the scenic view- 
point or that of the sportsman are the daslj- 
ing mountain streams that tumble through 
forests and canyons— the San Joaquin. Stanis- 
laus Mokelumne. Calaveras. Co^umnes. 
American. Truckee, Yuba. Bear. Fe.thcr 
Fall Pitt. McClnud. the mighty Klanuth HW 
mil«, in length, and the glorious Sacramento. 
wending its way through eleven counties, and 
furnislung not only sport and recreation but 
an inland waterway from the heart ol taii- 
fomia's richest agricultural empire to »kK- 
water in San Francisco Bay. 

Northward from Sacraimnlu u. Moi-m I * 
sen Volcanic National Park, «here «he '"iv 
active voKai.ü in continental I «>'teJ M»^ 
stands guard in "nature's curiosity *ho|v .1» 
hnimd is Shaita. "Go.t's M"""'»"' ^ '' 
early Indian*, and the M*U »aw BrJv i 
a.ea ul giant caverns and tunneb which <.><^ 
fur a ba>e tor murderous Indian tunds u. t« 
days »'I the firsl pioncciv 

Truly a Uml ot *.eniv «ondciv »«• """|^ 
uus to even mention, t»«. «*»»:«».> t». *» 
tu desvtibc. 



CALIFORXIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



33 



SANTA CLARA VALLEY 

FOUNDING OF MISSION SANTA CLARA .mJ PUEBLO SAN JOSH 




I AN JOSE (Spanish fnr St. Joseph, 
pmiinunccd Sail iln-Say), county 
■■'•at of Santa Clara County. Cali- 
fornia, fifty nu'lcs from San Fran- 

cisco, population 78,000; popirlation 

of county 137,000. 

Santa Clara Valley, 60 niik-s in length and 
20 miles in width, «as discovered on the 2nd 
day of November. 1769, hy a party of Span- 
iards, who had hccn dispatclu-d from the 
Pueblo at San Diego to establish an outpost at 
Monterey Bay which had been discovered in 
1602 by Sebastian \'iscaino. The i)arty, which 
was in command of Captain Caspar de Por- 
tola, civil and military governor, and Captain 
Ternando Javier Ricveray Moncado, failed to 
recognize Monterey Bay, and they were work- 
ing their way up coast in the mountain range 
west of the Santa Clara Valley «hen from 
the sunmilt of the range two of their party 
who were deer hunting discovered the valley. 
In 1772 the valley was thoroughly explored 
by Lieutenant Pedro Fages, who was with the 
party of discovery in 1769. 

The Mission Santa Clara was founded Jan- 
uary 18, 1777, by Lieutenant Jose de Moraga, 
under instructions of Governor Felipe de Neve 
and Father Jumpero Serra. Franciscan friar, 
as Missionary for Upper California. It was 
named after Santa (Saint) Clara, a pious 
woman of Assissi, Italy, «ho u-as canonized in 
1225. 

The Pueblo de San Jose dc Guadalupe was 
founded on the 29th of November, 1777. Don 
Felipe de Neve, third Spanish Governor of 
California, in office from December, 1774, to 
September, 1782, in 1777 directed Lieutenant 
Don Jose de Moraga, commandant at the Pre- 
sidio of San Francisco, to detach nine soldiers 
of known agricultural skill, two settlers and 
three laborers to form a settlement on the mar- 
gin of the Guadalupe Creek, two and a quar- 
ter miles from the Mission of Santa Clara, 
which they effected on November 29. 1777. 
and to «hich they gave the name of Pueblo 
de San Jose de Guadalupe. The location, 
which was about a mile and a quarter norther- 
ly from the center of the present city of San 
Jose, on the present road to Alviso, proved to 
be too low and wet, but it was not until 17SS 
that the Pueblo «as moved to a new site, the 
center of which was near the present corner ü( 
Market and San Fernando Streets. 

Some years later the Mission I-'athcrs plant 
ed four rows of willows between tlie Mission 
and the Pui-blo, for a shaded roadway and also 
for protection from wild catde, and named il 
■"I he Alameda." 'Jhis is now a broad, paved 
avenue, brilliantly lighted on both sides the 
entire distance of three miles from the ceiitei 
of San Jofct to the Mission City of Santa Clara 
and it aU« is a section of the paved ^tatc high 
way from San Frani isco to /,o» Angeles, coasi 
route. 

While Father Scrra wa«. establishing tnis- 



sions from San Diego to San Francisco, Hager 
Galves, Visador f General of the King of Spain 
in Mexico, was sending plants, seeds, cuttings, 
etc., to the new missions for their use, so that 
all soon had olive, pear and other trees grow- 
ing, and grapevines and vegetables. The valley 
that time was a natural park of huge oak 
and other trees, grizzly bears, deer, and other 
«ild animals were numerous. 

In March, 1S46, the valley was visited hy 
Colonel John C. Fremont with a party of t2, 
including Kit Carson, and being notiücd by 
Don Jose Castro, Prefect, that he must leave 
the country, he and his party marched to the 
summit of Gavilan mountains at the soiitberri 
end of the valley, where lie hoisted the Ameri- 
can flag. In July of the same year. Captain 
Fallon hoisted the American flag in San Jose. 
1 he United States by treatj' having acquired 
title to California. February 2, 1848, at the 
conclusion of the \\-ar «ith Mexico, a Con- 



acres for other state buildings, and #370.000 
toward construction of buildings, finally ac- 
cepted, and Act of Removal to V'allejn was 
passed, February 4, 18.S1, 

LegisLiture adjourned May 1, 1851. 

Convened at Vallejo, January 5. 1852, seven 
days later transferred to Sacramento; met 
again at Vallejo, January 3, 1853 ; removed to 
Benicia, February II, 1853; then hy enact- 
ment selected Sacramento as the permanent 
State Cajiital. 



Mission Santa Clara 

Of the t«enty-onc Missiotis established by 
the Spanish Padres in Califoriua, the Mission 
Santa Clara de Asis was the erghtli. The first 
of these Missions was San Diego de 
Alcala, July 16. 1769; the last, San Francisco 
Solano, in Sonoma Count)', July 4, 1823. Caii- 




Alission Smt Jose tie 
ditaJdtupe. fountted 
June 11. 1797. 



Misiioti Siiii/ii Cliira 
tie .■his, foitnilifl 
January 12, 1777. 



stitiitional CoiiM-ntinM »as held in Mnntcicj 
m 1849. 

Constitutional Coiiveiitioii at Monterey, 
September 1, 1849. 

First State Legislature convened in San 
Jose, December 15, 1849. 

Passed act apportioiu'iig the >tate Into cnufi- 
ties, February 18, 1850. 

Passed act to incorporate City of San Jose. 
March 27, 1850. 

Offer by General Mariano Guadalupe V'al 
Ii'jo, State Senator from District of Sonoma, 
of 20 acres for state eapitol and grounds, 13fi 



fornia originally «.is itihabited Mtlcly by In- 
dians; there were many tribes, but all of them, 
«ith rare exceptions, exhibited a low order ol 
intelligence. "W-ars before the first American, 
from east of the Rockies, set toot on the shores 
of the Pacific, the territory of (.'alitornia was 
a possession of Spain. It «as imder the «d- 
ininistratioii of a viceroy in Mexico that civ- 
ilization, as an adjunct of religion, obtaiiieil a 
foothold in this hitherto unkm)«n country. 
Spain f«llo«rd military subjugaiiun hy the in- 
troduction of Christianity, and the spiritual, 
moral an>l econoniie cotu|uest of the hrathrn 







r FIESTA DE LAS ROSAS 
of 
SANTA CLARA COUNTY 




lat 



3g 



c 

1! 



tribes was entrusted to inissionarius of tlu' 
Catliolic Church. 

Santa Clara Valley first grcvted thi- vision 
Ol tiiü whiti- man November 2. 1769, wlien an 
ixploring party of Spariiards, sent from Mex- 
ico, ga/.t'd upon its beauty from a summit of 
the Sania Cm/. Mount.iins. Subsequeiuly ii 
was explored by several Spanish military par- 
tiet. and on the 12tli day of January, 1777. one 
ol thew liroup» erected a crow at a point a 
triv mile> northerly from the hite of the pres- 



ent city of Siin Jose. It was on ilie bunki^ of 
the Ciiiadahipe Creek, on the subseipient l.auir- 
ehvood tarm ol I'eter J. Doiiohne, ne;ti l^- 
present village of Ague«-, that the tiisl re 
ligious scrvites in (his valley were obscrvnl, 
mass being celebrated by the ke\. I'atbri 
Thomas IVnn, and six days later, on the IKth 
day of January, Father Murguiu lornudly es- 
lahlislied the Mission ol Santa Clara on the 
site where tile irons hud been raided. 

Two year» later the little iniksiiiii h ju »«i-jh 



away by a Hoo*), lAtukinie tu» » b 
tiou, the iiilre|«iil Fathers »riccie»! 
the SiHithrrtt Piiih» d»'i«i«i, m tb^ 
uf Santa CU*a. Al ib.tt hh ' 
ill A )triiii(ti\r itMulxti'ti. <> 
IiuImiis. »ith tl]' 
ut SluniMids U' 
inilc» li(U)i ihr n 
de San Iil«- iI<- i . 
(abl-i 



PAMFORXIA 10URXAL HISTORICAL AXNUAL 



IS 



later became the city of San Josl- (Ho-say). 
The valley was a natural park of oaks, syca- 
more-!, «■illows, alders, shrubs, wild oats, and 
natural grasses, the feeding ground of count- 
less deer, and ranged by grizzly bears, moun- 
tain lions, foxes and other wild animals. 

In IS12 the second mission was badly dam- 
aged by an earthquake, and again, in 1818 it 
was MI seriously shaken by another trembler 
that it was unsafe for occupation. About 1H2(1 
another and more pretentious mission was 
built, known as the Santa Clara Mission 
Church, and it was dedic;itcd August H, 
1822. This was the mission commonly seen 
in illustrations, the most faithful, realistic and 
famous representation of it being the oil pamt- 
ing by A. P. Hill, a San Jose artist, the orig- 
inal of which has been for many years in the 
state capitol at Sacramento. The Mission 
Church was built of adobe bricks, and as in 
time it began to yield to the destructive forces 
of the elements, the old tower was surmounted 
with a wooden steeple. This was in 1840. In 
186U, when Father Michael Accoiti Mas parish 
priest, a wooden facade was built, and about 
1875 Father Joseph Bixlo, then parish priest, 
put on a new roof and made other repairs. 
In 1884 Father Kcnna, during his first term 
of the presidency of the Santa Clara College, 
completed the remodeling of the church build- 
ing, preserving as much as possible of the 
original material and decorations. 

On the 25th day of October. 1926, the 
Third Mission Church was destroyed by fire, 
and many precious relics, decorations, etc.. 
were burned, including the historic altar, the 
quaint old records, altar rail, altar statuary, 
Indian carvings, and an old octagonal pulpit. 
The altar rail «-^s made from beams of the 
old mission— redwood cut in the Santa Cruz 
Mountains, west of the valley, and hauled to 
the mission by oxen or carried on the shoulders 
of mission Indians. The wood carvings on the 
altar— angels bearing flambeaux, and statues 
of saints, all the work of mission Indians, were 
lost. Also destroyed were two of the historic 
mission bells, the gift of the King ot Spain. 
in earlv mission days. Two of these bells uere 
cast in Spain in 1798. the third in 1799. and 
the bell that escaped damage in its 60.foot fall 
from the belfry, bears the Latin inscription: 
"Ave Maria Purisima. Santa Clara. 1798." 
But many priceless historical altar ornaments 
were saved and these have been reinstated in 
the new $1 50,000 steel and concrete reproduc- 
tion of the Mission Church (the third church 
built), which was begun within a year after 
the fire and steadily pushed to completion, In 
1929 King Alphonse XIII of Spain presented 
the new mission with a new bell on which. In 
Latin, is an inscription which translated reads: 
■Alphonse XllI, King of Spain, generously 
donated to the University of Santa Clara of 
the Society of Jesus this bell in order that at 
the wund of the bell honor might be paid daily 
to the l^le^^ed Virgin." The hell was donated 
to rrplacr that one which was given by Charles 
IV and later destroyed by /ire. 

The new Miwion Church is in tlie slyle of 
;.rchitircture that iharacterized the third Mis- 
*i«^»n Church; it ha. a bcatins capacity of U'OO. 



It was built largely from contributions by the 
general public, and is used as a chapel for the 
students of the University of Santa Clara, on 
the campus of which it stands, while at the 
same time it is a perpetuation of the chain 
of missions established In California by the 
Franciscan Fathers luidcr the direction of the 
famous Padre Junipero Scrra. 




MISSION SAN JOSE 

FTER the founding of Santa Cruz 
and La Soledad Missions there was a 
period of rest, for Padre Prcsidentc 
Lasuen was making ready for a new 
and great effort. Hitherto, the nu's- 
sion' establishments had been isolated units of 
civilization, now they were to be linked to- 
gether, hy the founding of intermediate mis- 
sions, into one great chain, near enough for 
mutual help and encouragement. After a 
careful study of the whole situation, it was 
concluded that five new missions could be 
established. Thus it was Mission San Jose 
was founded on June II, 1797. 

Mission San Jose was dedicated to St. Jo- 
seph, the spouse of the Holy Virgin. June 11, 
17Q7, by direct order from the Apostolic Col- 
lege at San Fernando. Mexico. Padre Lasuen 
founded It. and appointed Padres Isadore 6ar- 
cenilla and Augustine Morino to assume 
charge of the mission. 

Owing to its situation, the first mission 
reached by trappers, scouts, and adventurers 
from the East, and also being the nearest to 
the valleys of the Sacramento and San 
Joaquin, which afforded retreats for fugitives, 
Mission San Jose had an exciting history. 

The mountain Indians near San Jose re- 
sented the presence of the missionaries, and 
consequently the padres were at once appre- 
hensive of trouble. Nothing of a serious na- 
ture occurred until January, 1803. It was 
then that Padre Cueva and a small escort of 
soldiers and Indians, on their way to visit 
some sick neophytes living in a rancheria ten 
or fifteen miles to the east, were attacked by 
gentiles, one soldier being killed. Advice was 
despatched to San Francisco and a small army 
of men led by Sergeant Peralta was sent to 
protect the mission. In 1826 there was an ex- 
pedition against the Cnsuinnes. in which 40 
Indians were killed, a rancheria destroyed, 
and 40 captives taken. In 1829 was waged 
the famous campaign against Kstanislas. who 
has given his name to both a river and county. 
This Indian was a neophyte of San Jose, and, 
endowed with more than usual ability, was 
made alcalde. Farly in 1828 he ran away 
with a large following of Indians and soon 
made him.self the terror of the randieios of 
the neighborhood. After a number of attacks 
;m expedition, headed by Ceneral M. C. \ al- 
Icjo. commander-in-chief of the whole Califor- 
nil army, was sent out to capture Kstantslas, 
After a desperate battle, Kstanislas' arn.y was 
annihilated. During the night the Indian cap- 
tives endeavored to escape, one by one. but 
nmst of them were killed by watchful guards, 



and in the morning none but the dead and 
three women were found. 

Although situated in a territory continually 
embroiled in petty warfare between Indians 
and settlers. Mission San Jose enjoyed great 
prosperity. 

In 1834 Cieneral Vallcjo, as Cor-iisicnado, 
took possession of the mirsion property and 
found ten thousand head of cattle, four thou- 
sand horses, and twelve thousami sheep; there 
were also about two thousand converted In- 
dians—a most remarkable showing for a small 
mission in thirty-seven years of existence. 

Mission San Jose was originally a sniall 
Ikoodcn stnicture, roofed with mats made by 
the Indians out of strands of woven grasses 
stitched together, but about the year 1800 a 
new building was constructed. These ruins, 
although the mission was simple and modest, 
and in no sense comparable with some others 
In size, number, or magnHicance, have received 
more attention and been described m more 
glowing colors by writers and visitors than 
many another more pretentious mission. 

The region, in which Mission San Jose is 
situated, was noted for its Immense stretch of 
fertile and well-watered lands, upon which 
flocks and herds could graze and wander in 
native pastures ulithout limit, summer and 
winter. These were the resources from which 
the missions prospered and amassed their 
wealth. More, Nature, again, with but little 
care, yielded bountifully her products to min- 
ister to the comfort and luxury of man. This 
mission at an early day led many others in 
riches and in the influence these bestowed upon 
it. Hunting in the mountains and trapping 
on the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers 
were sources of considerable wealth. The great 
mountains around the open country tempered 
the climate and promoted health and vigor, 
while they stirred the soul with their awe- 
inspiring scenery. 

• • • • 
Sixteen miles from the nmible and roar of 
the modern city of San Jose to the dignified 
quiet of this I. ^4-year-old relic of early Cali- 
fornia, an isle of romance in an ocean of prog- 
ress. Visiting the Mission San Jose Is an hour 
or tuo «ell spent if one seeks to absorb some 
thing of the spirit of the land of the padres 
as well as to delve into its history. 

But one building remains ot the original 
extensive group founded in 1797, but the 
crumbling adobe bricks are saturated with his- 
torical interest. 

It was when he was resting here while on a 
scientific voyage around the world in 1815 
that Albert von Chamisso, Gennan poet and 
botanist, described the California poppy to 
which he gave the botanical designation Esch- 
scholtzia. in honor of Joliann Friedrich Ksch- 
scholtz, Russian traveler and natunilist. In 
his diarv iiuhllshed in Kurope after the voyage, 
he amu.unce.l this uonder to the KuropeÄii 
world. 

An excellent embroidered robe worn hv 
Padre Junipero Serra. that valiant leader to 
whom California owes its missions; » carvM 
figure. "The Mnn of Sorrou-s." brt.ughi 
around the Horn from Spain before the dis- 



36 



CALIFOMlAilHiSNALjI^^ 



covcry of gold at Sutter's Milt; an anacn 
prayer book, a circle of bronze altar bells, and 
a score of other carefully preserved and rare 
objects form an interesting exhibit in this ni.s- 
sion. 

But it is not until one enter, the south room 
that the age of the buil.ling becomes apparent. 
For here some enterprising citizen of an early 
day sought to cover the adobe bricks with wall- 
paper and the paper serves to accentuate the 
time-stained timbers and hand-molded bricks^ 
Clancing overhead one's eye is caught and held 
by a rawhide tliong twisted around a ponder- 
ous beam, W- P- Jones, gray-haired care- 
taker, explains that the padres had no ropes, 
and that heavy timbers were hauled into place 
and temporarily bound with thongs of raw- 
hide. He explains also that the heavy cracks 
in the two- foot-thick walls were made by a 
vagrant quake in 1868 and that he. with his 
mother and father, were living there at the 
time, and ran terror-stricken into the street 
while the church and other buildings crumbled 
into dust. In another room he points out an 
electric light chandelier, even more incongru- 
ous to the eye than the wallpaper. A milestone 
of progress that chandelier, for Mission San 
Jose has watched the passing century and a 
quarter bring the telegraph, the electric light, 
the telephone, the automobile, and the radio. 



Santa Clara County, because of her fortun- 
ate geographical location, is a sort of "hub" 
for Dame Nature's scenic attractions which 
make California world-famous. Within reas- 
onable riding distances to the States most beau- 
tiful features, it affords countless visitors a 
"home away from home." 

Thirty-three miles from the center of the 
county is the California State Red\\ond Park 
(Big Basin) (9,330 acres), the home of th.- 
oldest living things in the world, the popularly 
called "big trees." Only in California do these 
mighty monarchs, the awe inspiring redwoods 

Sequoia Sempervirens and Sequoia Cjigantea 

—grow, forming great and living sanctuaries, 
far more majestic and beautiful than thos.- 
most magnificent man-made cathedrals of I'.ur- 
ope. 



BEGINNINC} OF THK PRUNE 
INDUSTRY IN CALIFORNIA 




IN 1S4'' l-ouis IMlier started from 
France for California, coming by 
way of Cape Horn. He went to the 
mines, but in 1S31 came to San Jose 
^ ,,.^1 and settled here on a piece of land. 
*^;^ears later known as Pellier Survey 
lying between Market, Santa Teresa and 
Devine Streets and Chaboya Alley. Here he 
started a little nursery. 

Some time after Louis had come to C ali- 
fornia, his brother Pierre also came over from 
France and joined Louis in San Jose. 

In the early part of 1856 Pierre returned 
to tlie Pellier home section in France and 



The value of all farm property in the 
county exceeds ?17S.nni).0OO; laiul here i^ 
valuable because it is highly |)roductive, has 
the advantage of accesible markets, an.l is e\ 
tremely valuable for hon>es. 'Iherefore. prices 
arc moderate; the be^t fruit land sells Ik.mi 
$mi to $2(100 an acre, <lepeiiding upon sev- 
eral factors; ijcncral farming land from $3l)n 
to $500 per acre; cattle ranges, all in the fout- 
hilU and mountain*, from $20 tu $50 an ncre. 
I'if»! claw orchards, including all improve- 
ments range from $1000 to $2200 an acre. 



Kxpositio" held that year in Pari». After wnne 
months he retiirnnJ, and in 1869 he vAA ofl 
some of his property in lot* to T. W. Sprint 
William Abel and others. He died in 1872, 
several yearn after he had gone out of the 
nursery business. 

Of the party of Pellier^ who came to San 
Jose in 1856 all arc dead except I.«uis A. Pel- 
lier. Louis' nephew, who. although he had 
niade many trips from here, has resided in San 
Jose all these years and a still here, one of 
San Jose's best known citi/xns, residing widi 
his son and daughter-in-law, Mr. and Mn. 
E. J. L. PelhVr. 183 W. St. James Street, in 




Sorlhtfi pears for sizf in one of the many valley pear orfharJi. 



there stayed with Jean, a third brother. Louis 
had given him a long list of grape vines, orna- 
mental fruit trees, plants, shrubbery seeds, and 
other seeds, with instructions to bring back all 
tliat he conveniently could for the Pellier 
Nursery here. On this list was Le Petit 
d'Agen, a little prune of Agen. the district in 
France in which the Pellier family resided. 
All these plants and seeds were gathered by 
Pierre and his brother Jean and packed for 
shipment. In the meantime Pierre hail mar- 
rieil, and when in the latter part of 1856 he 
started upon his return trip his party consist- 
ed of himself and wife, his brother Jean, his 
wife's brotlier, and his little nephew. Lmiis-A., 
being his brother Jean's son, — five in all. Tliev 
reached Liverpool, where they boarded the 
sidewheel steamer "Arabia." which conveyed 
them to New York; their next stop was at 
Aspinvvall, from whicli point they crossed tlie 
Isthmus of Panama, and on the Pacific side 
boarded the steamer "fiolden date", reaching 
San Fraiuisco in December. 

From San Francisco the party came on to 
San Jose, and the trees wt-re planted in Louis' 
nursery, which he had ninned "The City (lai- 
dcn." In IH67 Louis relumed to France tu 
visiit his old home und to see the llni\('i>.d 



the original Louis Pellier Tract. 

Louis charged titty cents each »or grafting 
the prune d'Agen. B. Kemp, a Cerman who 
had a small nursery also, was the first to gnli 
the petit prune and set them out in orchard 
rows. Louis had grafted his scions on the 
wild plum root. In 1867. J- Q. A. Balou 
bought fifty scions from Louis and grafted 
them on tame plum trees, and he it was who 
sold the first Califoniia-grown dried prunes, 
to Mr. Lusk, a San Francisco commission me^ 
chant, who bought $600 of Ballou's prunes 
mixed with -.»itred dried phniis. These prune» 
had been pitted ;uid had been dried m the suO 
withovit havini; been dipped in lye. 



II FI , ITl 1). ».T:MFN r. tIKAVFI 

roi 1 ^R^ scmM ifs 

FFKIll IZFKS 

P.M. HOLST 6? CO. 

5005 EAST UthSTRKET 
OAKLAM> 

W.iiehuuse on CIcnieni Strrei 
KKuiivale 07W 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



37 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

AND HORTICULTURE IN 

SANTA CLARA VALLEY 




HE main purpose of establishing tht- 
Pueblo de San Jose de Guadalupe, 
now the City of San Jose, by the 
Mission Fathers in 1777, was to pro- 
mote agriculture, because it was de- 
sired to make the country self-supporting and 
no longer dependent upon Mexico for sup- 
plies. Every settler at the Pueblo was given 
a piece of cultivable land, also a house lot, 
ten dollars a month and a soldier's rations, 
and a yoke of oxen, two horses, two cows, 
a mule, two sheep and two goats, seed and 
farming implements were supplied them, 
payments being required for those and for 
the animals in products of the soil. Pear, 
olive and other fruit trees, grape vines and 
garden vegetable seeds and flowering 
plants, and seed grain for the growing of 
hay and wheat were brought from Mexico 
for the use of the mission and pueblo farm- 



San Jose. From 1852 to 1858 small orchards 
here, not much larger than town lots were 
turned to good profit with dwarf pear and 
apple trees. The first strawberries, now to 
be had in our local markets every year 
from middle of March until the following 
January, were planted in 185.1. For many 
years horses and cattle were the predominant 
farm products in Santa Clara \'alley. but as 
the vast Spanish ranches were sold off bit by 
bit to the (iringos — American settlers — the 
production of hay. wheat and barley steadily 
increased, until finally the entire valley was 
practically one big hay and grain field, with 
many small orchards and vineyards scat- 
tered through. 

The beginning of the fruit industry on a 
commercial scale in this valley may very prop- 
erly be assigned to the year 1856, when Louis 
Pellier, a Frenchman, brought from his home 




.1 prune dry yard, ivhcre the fruit is dritd under cloudless skies md a 
beneficient sun. 



other kinds of orchard fruit; l.^HU ui grapes; 
5000 acres in walnuts and almonds, 1 100 acres 
in berries, and 25,000 acres in canning and 
other vegetables. The county is the largest 
cannery and dried fruit packing center in the 
world, with 40 canneries, 32 dried fruit and 
several green fruit packing houses, and many 
evaporators and dehydrators. San Jose and 
the county ship by rail and water canned and 
dried fruits ranging from 300,000 to 400,000 
tons annually, and 25,000 tons of other soil 
products. 



ers. As early as 1792 Vancouver, visiting 
California, saw at Santa Clara Mission a 
fine small orchard of apple, peach, pear, apri- 
cot, olive and other fruit trees, all thrifty and 
promising. By 1800 ample fruit of various 
kinds was grown to supply the needs of the 
Mission and Pueblo settlement and by 1805 
more fruit was grown than could be dis- 
posed of in its natural state. 

It was a long span, however, beiwecn the 
old iiii»ion and pueblo fruits to the planting 
of nurseries and orchards on a commercial 
«rale. After the secularization of church 
properties in 1834 the mission orchards and 
gardens were neglected and they rar.idly de- 
teriorated. American ieltlers here and there 
from 1849 on planted fruits from the mis- 
sion »lock«, and the finest fruit offered for 
kale in the San I-rancisco market was pearc 
grown in thi» cimMV> "' ^""^ ^■''"^'' "'"' 



district of Agen in France a number of prune 
sections to his place near San Jose. Although 
since that date quite a considerable number of 
varieties of prunes liave been introduced and 
propogated in California, the original Pellier 
prune, which later was named llie Petite Prune 
D'Agen, has been and is today the great com- 
mercial prune of this state. About that time 
fruit tree nurseries were established near San 
Jose, and the orchard industry began to ex- 
pand, and it has been r.npidly growing ever 
since. 

Today Santa Clara County has more than 
70.000 acres in prunes, growing over 40 per 
i-enr of all the prunes in California, its aver- 
age annual production ranging from 90.000,- 
000 to 120.000.000 pounds dried; and there 
i^ in the county a total of 130,000 acres in or- 
chards of idl kinds, comprising prunes, apricots, 
cherries, fiears, jicaches, plums. a|)iiles, and 



PALO ALTO 




HILE Santa Clara, one of our orig- 
inal counties, dates only from 1850, 
history was in the making for a long 
period previous to that year. It was 
,----. in 1769 that Portola, discoverer of 
San Francisco Bay and the Santa Clara Val- 
ley, camped on the banks of the San Fran- 
cisquito in the shadow of the sequoia which, 
because of its prominence as a landmark, the 
Spaniards named Palo Alto (tall tree). 

Five years later the Rivera party chose this 
same camp and Padre Palou, impressed by the 
good pasture, the beauty of the trees, and the 
running water, set up a cross to mark the site 
for a mission. Again the spot was the stop- 
ping place of a noted explorer when Anza. 
founder of San Francisco, camped here in 
1776. He found the cross but tells us that 
plans for a mission had been abandoned when 
it was found that the water did not always 
run and the grass was not always green. San- 
ta Clara became the mission site and near by 
was founded the pueblo of San Jose, oldest 
town in California. 

Except for the story of the missions there 
is little to be told of the region for the next 
fifty years. The fathers, chiefly concerned 
with civilizing and Christianizing the Indians, 
were not friendly to immigrants, but some of 
the Spaniards nevertheless came, helped them- 
selves to land, regardless of the rights of the 
natives, and made the valley one great cattle 
ranch. California became a Mexican province 
in 1823, and about ten years later the great 
mission chain was broken up by the seculariza- 
tion order. 

Knowledge of the beautiful v.illey had been 
spreading and even before 1840 it was attract- 
ing settlers. The next decade brought three 
major events to shift the course of our his- 
tory. The Mexican War made the province 
American, the discovery of gold materially in- 
creased the flow of immigration. 

If the Spanish governors had been free with 
their grants of land, their Mexican successors 
were even more so. Tliree of these grants, 
given by Alvarado in 1841, are closely inter- 
woven witli the liistory of a famous university, 
the old town of Mayfield and the newer one 
of Palo Alto. On another grant to the south- 
east, there grew up a little settlement around 
a stage station established in 1S52. But when 
the railroad was built some ten years later the 
little village found itself a mile awuy and now 
only a few houses of the Old Town reawin. 



.is 



CALIFORNIA TOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 




The hotel is gone, even the big oak at the 
Grant Road, surveyors' landmark in the early 
days, was felled with the recent widening of 
ttie highway. In place of the old settlement we 
now find the newer Mountain View, seat of a 
large and important publishing house, with a 
rapidly growing population of forward-look- 
ing citizens. 

At "Uncle Jim" Otterson's, famous as a 
stage stop, was established a post office in 1855, 
and here was founded the town of Mayfield in 
1S67 by William Paul. Out on the bay 
sloughs opposite these tittle toM-ns \iere busy 
landings where hay was shipped out and mer- 
chandise brought in by the little steamers. 
These and other ports farther north hung on 
in spite of railroad competition, some even into 
the nineties. Recent attempts to revive some 
of them have met with little success. 

There came into the valley in 1874 the 
eccentric and mysterious Peter Coutts, who 
acquired some 1300 acres on one of the old 
grants. His life and his stay of eight years are 
surrounded by legend. Whether or tiot he was 
guilty of embezzlement, he did depart suddenly 
after a visit from the French consul. His land 
was purchased by Senator Sanford, who had 
some time before bought the estate of (teorge 
(jordon, known as Mayfield Grange, and 
made it his home. 

With the purchase of the holdings of Coutts 
and others in the vicinity the Stanford estate 
readied a size of 8,000 acres, to which was 
given the name of Palo Alto, after the tree. 
Stanford, a lover of fine horses, established 
.1 stock farm which became known the country 
n\cT when prize after j)rize was won by it» 
racers. Due of the most famous of these horses, 
holder of many records, «as also known as 
Palo Aito and helped materially in spreadrnj; 
(lie name. 

In memory of their lost son, who died in 
1 K84, the Stanfords founded the university, 
Opening in 1K91 with (ewer thati (lOO stu- 
dents, the institution has in the forty ye»rs 
cilice graduated more than 14,000 men and 
women. On the campus is the home of Her- 
bert J-foovcr, the most famous alumnus. His 
M-»idence is here but the insistence of two 



I'ttiL- lij i'rciuit'iit Uoitvii'i liuiiw III Fiiln .ill" 

presidents and later of the nation that he live 

elsewhere has prevented him from occuping it. 

To some the new university naturally meant 

a new town. An enterprising real estate man 



purchased farm land adjoining the campus on 

une side and Mayfield on the other, platted it 

as a town, and advertised a sale of lots in Palo 

Continued on Page 62 




S»n Jose Flying Fitlil 




Pitl'j .Hfj Fl\tnij Ft. .. 




S.mlu Chim .iirpurt providn faalilia f„, Jmi.uu, m«. .w y« 
trtiHsportalion 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



39 



Alto. Snmcnliiit tuu enterprising and making 
c\trav:ig;int claims, he incurred the displeasure 
of Stanford, who bronglit suit against the use 
of the name. Hy agreement of property owners 
this was changed to College Terrace, by whicli 
tIu- tract is still known. 

(opposite tlic entrance to the university aii- 
<uher town had been started, called University 
Park. Sensing the adantage in the name dis- 
carded by its rival, the property owners here 
agreed to drop their own name and in its place 
gave the name of Palo Alto to the city which 
now bears it, just forty years ago, January 30, 
1892. 

Mayfield, like many other towns of the 
time, iiad a number of drinking places. Uni- 
ersity Park had been founded with an idea 
somewhat novel, though already tested in an- 
other California city, a clause in deeds forbid- 
ding use of property for selling liquor. (Tliis 
clause was a subject of discussion recently in 
Washington when deeds were passed for the 
new post office). In 1903 Mayfield incorpor- 
ated and soon after\\ard abolished saloons, but 
not soon enough to catch the stride set by the 
newer Palo Alto. 

Annexation and natural growth during the 
next twenty years brought the two neighbors 
gradually nearer together and a movement was 
begun for actual union. This was accomplished 
after a second election and since July, 192?, 
a larger Palo Alto has been steadily going 
forward, with the old Mayfield, proud to be 
a part of it, still clinging to the old name 
which has so much sentiment and history back 
of it. 

A few miles out from Palo Alto the 
electric line to San Jose crosses a plateau some 
two hundred feet above the valley, with an in- 
viting background of foothill and mountain. 
Founded on this natural townsite twenty-five 
years ago Los Altos has become noted for its 
suburban residences and its beautiful surround- 
ings. 

One of the early settlers of the county. Mar- 
tin Murphy, a man with a passion for adding 
to his acreage and no inclination to part « ith 
any of it, left an estate of 10.000 acres. When 
enough people had come in to make a post 
office necessary it was found that his name was 
not available because of vise elsewhere. Hut 




Sludtnts' Uni'iii 
Building at Stan- 
ford University. 
Pah Alto. 



About equi-distant from Sunnyvale and 
Mountain View the old maps show a tract 
labelled Ynigo reservation, named for an old 
Indian chief. The tract is shown on some 
maps as the Posolmi land grant, but looking 
for it now one will find title to most of it 
vested in the Federal government, with the re- 
mainder under option. Here an immense 
building is under construction to house the 
new navy dirigible Macon. 

This part of the county is rapidly merging 
into one big neighorhood. A community of in- 
terests is drawing together the territory from 
Sunnyvale and the air base to and even beyond 
the county line at the creek. 

Beauty of scenery, mildness of climate and 
excellence of its products, especially fruit, have 
combined to spread knowledge of the section 
until the population h.is reached a figure of 
some 2S.Ü0n. Increased attention will be cen- 
tered on the district through one of its newest 



Looking across the VntvfrsUy Quadrtinglf 





Count 



Vlurphy Avrn«c i» the principal street of the 
,own which grew up, known for a time as En- 
. ,nal. After a I.ri.k difference of opinion about 
.. year ago it became known m th-- ruhr,- 
iiulioii a» Sunnyvale. 



//„// of Rtfrdh in Sun Josf 

name, Sunnyvale, while its ohiest name. Pain 
Alto, links the present with the days of Lali- 
(cirnia\ oldest recorded history. 

(Iiv C. Mni.KK. 

Palo Alto, California. 



The New Alniaden 
Quicksilver Mine. 

S'ear San h-u . Santa Clara County. Calif 

NLY 13 miles trom San Jose, in tht 
Santa Clara Valley, California, 
reached by a brief drive over a paved 
road, with thriving orchards ami 
productive farms on either hand, is 
tiie^ second largest and riche.t quicksilver 
mine in the world— the New Almadeii, named 
after the Almaden mine in the province ol I. a 
Mancha, Spain, liidrcd, it is doubttul if the 
Spanish mine, during its many centuries uf 
working, has produced more quicksilver than 
has the New Almatlen, which durmg a cen- 
tury of operation has yielded more than eighty 
million dollars' w«irth uf this precious metal 
Located in the picturesque ioothills. umidsl 
beautiful natural surroundings, its history 
leads back to a time hing before the fir>e Span- 



411 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



iard set foot on tlie soil of this wonderful val- 
ley, then inliabitcd only by Indians. For years. 
— how many no one knows — preceding the dis- 
covery of the valley by the Spaniards, the 
Indians had been utihzing the cinnabar ore lor 
red pigment with which to |>:iint their bodies. 
To procure this paint they came from all sec- 
tions of northern and central California, and 
even as far north as the Oregon country. The 
paint made from the cinnabar Mas called by 
the Indians "Mohetka," and tradition says 
that when applied to the body the red snl- 
phure of mercury salivated them, so that its 
application was painful, but the color was al- 
luring, and in their simple longing for personal 
adornment they continued to use it. So grad- 
ually, year by year, the cave they had excavat- 
ed reached deeper into the mountainside, and 
as they did not know enough to timber their 
rough, irregular tunnel, nor have tools with 
which to work, one day the eartli and rocks 
above crashed down, and the tragedy that oc- 
curred was discovered years after, when Span- 
iards, opening up the cave, came upon a group 
of skeletons, remains of Indians who had been 
trapped and had died there. In 1777, when 
the Spanish padres built the Mission Santa 
Clara, they learned from friendly Indians of 
this red earth that made red paint, and it was 
used in adorning the Mission. 

The San Vicente ranch, on which is the 
New Almaden mine, was granted to Don Jose 
Berryessa, in the early settlement of Santa 
Clara Valley, by Don Luis Argiiello, Gov- 
ernor of California, for Bcrrycssa's services as 
his secretary. Berryessa was the first white 
man to discover the mine. In the year 1824 
an old Indian told Secundino Robles, major- 
domo of Santa Clara Mission, and Don Liu's 
Chaboyo. of his belief that there was a mine in 
the hill where the Indians found the red paint; 
and Robles, Father Real and Berryessa set out 
to find it. It was Berryessa 's foot that scraped 
aside the accumulated leaves and dirt that 
covered the mouth of the mine and revealed 
the opening. Robles informed Don Antonio 
Sunol of the mine and its location, and be- 
lieving that it contained silver, Robels spent 
several hundred dollars in tunneling, but fail- 
ing to find silver, he abandoned it. Don Jose 
Berryessa was shot and killed at San Rafael 
in 1846, and subsequently his widow sold her 
interest in the San Vicente ranch and the mine 
for $60,I)01J. 

The New Almaden is one of the very old- 
est mines in America, and always since IK24 
some one has been working it. For many years 
it was called the Chaboya mine, although the 
Chaboyas never owned it. It was not until 
1S54 that tlic secret of the rctl ore was rc- 
vcalci], through simple experiment.s made by 
Captain Andres Castillero, who discovered 
that it w:vi rich in cjuicksilvcr. (,'astillero, 
who had studied mining in Mexico, had lonie 
to California, and learning from IndiaiiH in 
(he Sacramento Valley where they had pro- 
cured the red paint with which thrir bodies 
were covered, he rode to rlie Santa Clara Mik- 
tion, where Father Kcal showed hini »aniplei 
tti tlic ore. iiaving tuixeedcd in extracting 
quit'bilvcr from a tinall portion of tlic pul 



LICK OBSERVATORY 




OCATED at summit of Mt. Ham- 
ilton, due East from San Jose, at 
an altitude of 4,209 feet, 13 miles 
from San Jose in an ai'r line and 27 
miles by road. It is a department of 
the University of California. The history of 
the Observatory is as follows: 

James Lick, who donated the fund for 
building and maintaining the Observatory, was 
born in Fredericksburg, Pennsylvania, August 
25, 17%, and he died in San Francisco Octo- 
ber 1, 1876. His remains are buried in the 
supporting pier of the 36-inch equatorial tele- 
scope, which latter when constructed was the 
largest telescope in the world. Lick in his 
youth learned organ and piano making, and 
after practicing his trade in Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, Buenos Aires and Chile, he came 
to San Francisco in 1847, where he made large 
Investments In real estate. He also built a 
large flouring mill on the bank of the Guada- 
lupe Creek, near the site of the present town 
of Agnew. 

On July 16, 1874, he executed a deed of 
trust, devoting nearly all of his fortune of 
$3,000,000 to public purposes, to a body of 



trustees .selecteil by him, one section of which 
directed the trii.stees to expend •fJOti.iM) for 
iin observatory at some point wifliin the Stat.- 
ol California. September 21, 1«7S, he 5ub»ti- 
tuted a nvw Hoard of Trustees and provided 
that the observatory, when built, should b- 
conveyed to the University of California, to b- 
known as the Lick Astronomical Dcparrmcnt 
of that University. Again, September 2, 1876, 
he replaced the second Hoard of Trustees with 
a third, and October 1, 1876, he died, 'i'hc 
third board built the observatory, tliis board 
consisting of Richard S. Floyil, President. 
William Sherman, V'ice-President; Edwin B 
Mastick, Trea^ure^; Charles M. Plum and 
George SchoenwaU, \nth Lick's confidential 
business man, Thomas E. Eraser, as superin- 
tendent of construction. Lick had already pro- 
posed In 1875, to the Board of Supervisors of 
Santa Clara County, to construa his observa- 
tory on Mt. Hamilton, provided the counr-. 
would build a first-class road to the summit 
The officials acted promptly and a splendid 
road was completed in December. 1876, at a 
cost of S78,ÜÜU. Legal complications following 
Lirk'-i death were not settled until 1879, and 



verized ore, he went to the Pueblo (town) of 
San Jose, where, after having complied with 
the requirements of the Mexican mining law, 
he was given legal possession of the mine, 
December 30, 1845, by Antonio Marie Pico, 
First Alcade, Antonio Sunol and Jose Norlego 
acting as witnesses. Castillero renamed the 
mine the New Almaden and he took in as 
partners Don Jose Castro, who later was (Gen- 
eral Castro; Secundino and Teodor Robles, 
and Father Jose Maria del Real. Castillero 
employed William G. Chard, an American, 
from Columbia County, New York, to reduce 
the ore, and he worked in a crude way until 
August, 1846, when he left. When Fremont 
and Kit Carson passed through San Jose they 
visited the mine, and Fremont reported to the 
United States Government that the mine was 
worth about $30,000; but within four years 
after he had made his estimate It was earning 
$25,000 a month for the company oj>erating 
it. Castillero sold some shares to Messrs. Har- 
ron, Forbes and Walkinshaw, of Teplc, Mex- 
ico, and John Parrott, who later became one 
of the wealthiest men in San Franclsto. Ma- 
chinery and uorkmen were brought from 
Mexico, furnaces were erected, and Captain 
H. W. Halleck (later General), was placed 
in charge. At first ore was taken from the 
mine on |)ack mules, then u ith wagons, ,uul 
later In cars. 

Although the working nu-tlioiL «eie ^tllI 
quite triide, the output Increased year by year, 
and soon It dazzled the world, ut, it rxcrctled 
In richness even the old Almaden of Spain. 
The new mine produced it!, richest ore diirin); 
the 50'sj its wealth »cenied Inexhiiuhtible, and 
a number of clainuint» arose, cloudinjj the title. 
From l«S.i to 1861 the mine was closed, while 
liti{{ation wa» ^oini£ on; but the title huviii); 
filially been cleared by the tourti, the com- 



pany, in 1864, sold the mine to the Quick- 
silver Mining Company of New York, for 
$1,700,000. Samuel Butter%vorth became the 
manager, and the mine was capitalized at $10.- 
000,000. It poured out its molten wealth all 
through the '6ü's and on to 1874, the year of 
its greatest production. 

Mr. Buttenvorth resigned as nunager ir 
1870, and he was succeeiied by J. B. Randvl 
of New York, president of the company and 
controlling owner of the mine. Mr. Randul 
installed a million dollars' worth ot machii' 
cry, and he sank a shaft in the center of t^t'- 
mine 2450 feet into the eanh — ü shaft that 
has produced more quicksilver than any other 
opening in the nune. Mr. Randol nunaged 
the mine for 24 years; he died in New York 
December 23, 1903. During his liietinie j^ 
many as 1000 men were employed, and biK" 
people lived at New Almaden; 80 miles o' 
tunnels were dug. and 16 turnaces uetr 
U|>on his retirement, in 1894, he mo» m- 
ed by Thomas Derby, of San Joär, »ho u- 
mained in that |<unltiuii until )*tl2, when th. 
New .Almaden Company took over ihc 
erty. Dther managers, and other uHUf- 
tollovved, but fur several >ears the lu 
been either inactive or onl> kli^hlly ^v 
During il» yrar> ot o|iei4iiun the piwe o 
quicksilver has tanked as low as >J^. ,i iL^>. 
and a^ lu^h ai $l2l>, i tinak von 
pounds of quiiksilver. W'hethLi ..- - 
mine Um been "»urked out", or iheie u> iidl 
lurking in i(> iaithrsi de^uh» oihei va^i -—•■'^ 
(it weNllh for thuM who iiuy »eek il. < 
knowk. Hut iheie u nu hutum. k(<i>( 
Culiiorniti ihonr woilh vutiniK. oi iitui^ 
reached, than the New .\hi ' 
San Ju»r V'hanihci ul <\»\' 
tllik deh)thllul iiip tu all i < > .i. snd -i'» 
vwtuift lu S«IU« V.'l«t« \ *ltik 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



41 



active construction of the observatory was be- 
gun in tliat year. 

Land for tlie observatory site was obtained 
by grant of Congress (1946 acres), by Cali- 
fornia Patent (511 acres); by gift of R. F. 
Morrow (30 acres); and by purchase {673 
acres) ; deduct 30 acres subsequently sold, 
leaving a total of 3120 acres. The obseratory 
was completed in 1888, at a total expense of 
$610,000. The Regents of the University of 
California assumed control on June 1, 1888, 
and the scientific stalT entered upon their duties 
on that date. 

The observatory consists of a main building, 
containing offices, computing rooms, library of 
8.000 books and 5,000 pamphlets, and the 
domes of the 36-inch equatorial and the 12- 
inch equatorial telescopes; of detached build- 
ings to shelter the Crossley Reflector, the mer- 
idian circle and other instruments, and to pro- 
vide safe deposit rooms and photographic dark 
rooms; of instrument shops; of duelling 
houses; and of other buildings, reservoirs, 
pumping stations, etc. The observatory is thor- 
oughly equipped with every instrument essen- 
tial to astronomical observations and discovery. 
The directors of Lick Observatory have 
been: Edward Singleton Holden, June 1, 1888 
to December 31, 1897 ; James Edward Keeler, 
June 1. 1898 to August 12, 1900; William 
Wallace Campbell. January 1, 1901, to about 
1924, when he accepted the presidency of the 
University of California, since which time 
Robert G. Aitken has been acting director. 
The scientific staff has averaged five astron- 
omers, one assistant astronomer and two as- 
sistants, and in Chili, on the D. O. Mills 
Foundation, one astronomer and two assist- 
ants. Four fellowships are maintained at the 
observatory for well prepared graduate stu- 
dents for advanced study and research. The 
results of the observatory's researches and the 
many valuable discoveries have been published 
from time to time in astronomical journals and 
in publications of the Lick Observatory. 

The observatory is open to daytime visitors 
every day of the year from 9 a. m. to 5 p. m., 
from April 1 to September 30, and before 9 
a. m-, from October 1 to March 31. Oppor- 
tunity is afforded on the Saturday evenings to 
look through the 36-inch refractor always, and 
also the 12-inch refractor if clear skies permit. 
The annual number of visitors to the observa- 
tory exceeds 10,000. There are no hotel ac- 
commodations at the summit, but there is a 
hotel at Smith Creek, on the «ay up from San 
Jcsc, 9 miles below the summit. The average 
population at the observatory, during the past 
(Ivc years, has been fifty; there is a public 
school, which is the property of the ob.serva- 
tory, at the summit, the teacher being supplied 
by the state and county. 

An aulostage, carrying mail and passengers, 
leaves San Jose every morning, except Sun- 
days, at 9 o'clock for the summit, returning in 
the afternoon, and leaves every Saturday aft- 
trnoon at 4 o'clock when there arc passengers, 
arriving in San J'^e on the return trip at 11 
\}. in. Fare for the round trij) is $4.00 per one 
perwjn. For party of ^ or nioie #3,00 each; 
j;2.50 ea<b (or jiariy of 50. 



BELMONT SCHOOL 

An Exceptional Institution oj Traimng. 



HE selection of the proper school for 
a boy is of the utmost importance to 
his parents. It is, indeed, more vital 
than the selection of a college later, 
for the liabits formed during tlie sec- 
'iii.l,ir_\ school years lay the foundation for use- 
ful citizenship and honorable manliood. The 
growing boy needs a scliool where he may live 
a healthy, normal life, much in the out-of- 
doors, and where he will be taught how to 
study and trained to think for himself. 

The school whose traditions and atmosphere 
are such that proper ideals, attitudes, and 
habits arc stimulated in every phase of its 
activities develops the boy mentally, morally, 
and physically. 

The Boy at Belmont 
For more than forty years Belmont School 
has successfully prepared boys for college. 
Here the boy finds that stimulating atmos- 
phere so essential for his college preparation 
and for his physical and moral growth. With 
its wealth of traditions and its high scholastic 
standards, the school surrounds the boys with 
high ideals in education and character. 

Successful college preparation is achieved 
more efficiently away from the distractions of 
the city. Life in the out-of-doors gives to 
boys a foundation for health and character, 
and the ability to meet and overcome difficul- 
ties later in life. 

Belmont School gives thorough preparation 
for those colleges whose requirements for ad- 
mission are most severe, and also offers a 
course that prepares its graduates for the non- 
technical requirements of modern business life. 
Situated in the foothills, the school Is locat- 
ed at Belmont on the Southern Pacific Rail- 
road, twenty-one miles south of San Francisco. 
Here the city boy may enjoy the life of the 
open country and the country boy the educa- 
tional opportunities of a great city. 

The mild, even climate enables boys to 
spend their recreation hours in the open. They 
avoid the rigorous climate of the East and the 
enervating heat of the South. No more ideal 
conditions could be found for earnest, sincere 
school work. Then, too. the school is a mile 
and a quarter from the station and beyond the 
limits of the village, so ttiat the boys have un- 
interrupted hours of study and of recreation. 
Founded in 1885 by William T. Reid. Har- 
vard, '68, formerly President of the University 
of California, the Belmont School has a strong 
educational background. Mr. Keid brought to 
the school the traditions of the best prepara- 
tory schools and from the first endeavored to 
maintain in the West a college preparatory 
school equal to the foremost schools of the 
Fast Over three hun.lred Belmont graduates 
l.ave entered the leading colleges in America 
.nd in England. In 1918 the ownership of the 
school wa. transferred to the Most Reverend 
Archbisho|> of San Francisco. The present 
iK-admaster maintains the same liigh scholastic 
stiuidanis as his predecessor. 



TiioRuiGH College Preparation 
When a boy enters Belmont School he usu- 
ally designates the college of his choice, so that 
any minor difficulties of the entrance require- 
ments may be taken care of normally as the 
boy's work proceeds. 

Every help is given to a boy to straighten 
out his difficulties: to teach him how to study, 
how to concentrate, and hoiv to be self-reliant. 
The masters are kindly, sympathetic men 
who understand and like boys and are willing 
at all times to help each boy with his indi- 
vidual problem or difficulty. They are all uni- 
versity and college men of pronounced ability, 
each a specialist in his subject. 

Boys go from Belmont School on certificate 
to Stanford University, the University of Cali- 
fornia, and all Catholic colleges. As most of 
the leading eastern colleges admit boys on the 
results of the College Board examination, the 
course of studies is arranged and the boys are 
prepared with the requirements of the College 
Board in view. 

The school offers two types of diploma and 
presents two sets of graduation requirements. 
The regular diploma is given to all students 
completing the regular course of study and 
meeting the graduation requirements of that 
course. 

The certificate of completion is given to 
those students who have registered in the spec- 
ial course and have completed the requirements 
of that course. 

In order to qualify for entrance to the Uni- 
versity of California or Stanford University, 
a student must graduate in the regular course. 
Of his graduation units, fifteen must be of a 
grade of eighty-five per cent or above. 

Belmont School maintains both an Upper 
School and a Lower School. The regular 
school curriculum begins with the work of the 
second primary grade and concludes with the 
work of the last year of high school. Boys who 
are not prepared for the second grade are 
sometimes admitted, and the high school course 
of study is such that an additional year may 
be taken if desirable. 

To meet the univenity entrance require- 
ments a line of demarcation is made between 
the eighth grade and the first year of high 
school. 

The Lower School students receive instruc- 
tion in handwork of various kinds, in general 
science, in modern language, in music, in 
nature study and in the various nccrssary 
branches. The program of the Lower School 
and tliat of the tapper School are being con- 
stantly widened and enriched in accordance 
wirli the best methotis in modern etlucation. 
Admission 
The requirements for admission to the Low- 
er School may he ordinarily met by a boy eight 
or nine years of age. The age .U which a boy 
may enter the other classes depends upon his 
power of application and his willingnos to 
lake advantagr o( opportunities lor study. 



4: 



CALII-OK.nJ'^ jwl iviN.-M- 



Application (or admission should be made 
several weeks before the term at the opening 
of which the student wishes to enter. Parents 
are earnestly advised to have their son prepare 
to pass an examination for admission to full 
standing in one of the classes. 

Kvery applicant not known to the iJeail- 
niaster nui'^t present satisfactory evidence of 
good habits and good character. If he comes 
from another school he must present a record 
of his standing at that school. 

Parents are requested to give the head- 
master their complete confidence with regard 
to their son. Such knowledge, in advance, 
often makes it immediately possible for a boy 
to overcome any difficulties which he might 
have. 

The healthful outdoor life at Belmont 
School is a natural assurance against illness. 
The thoroughly heated and well-ventilated 
buildings, with their large, airy windows, pro- 
vide the best conditions for good health. 

The school infirmar\' insure quiet and isola- 
tion and is supcr\'iscd by a resident trauied 
nurse. The school physician is always avail- 
able. In emergency cases specialists from San 
Francisco are readily obtained. 

The younger boys are under the constant 
supervision of a matron who devotes her en- 
tire time to their comfort and welfare. She 
sees that their rooms and persons are kept neat 
and in order; that they go to bed and get up 
at the proper time and in the right way. 

The conduct and general behavior of the 
boys are left largely to the boys themselves, 
under the guidance of wise and sympathetic 
masters. Rules are reduced to a minimum. A 
self-governing committee, composed of the 
older boys in the school, and elected by the 
student body, assists the school in maintaining 
order and in creating a sense of responsibility 
among the student body. 

Spacious Grounds and Modern 
Buildings 

The spacious grounds surrounding the 
school provide every facility for athletics and 
outdoor sports — baseball, football, soccer, ten- 
nis and track. The rolling hills and open fields 
offer unlimited opportunities for hikes. 

The school buildings are attractive and 
homelike, (^f fireproof construction, they pro- 
vide for the safety as well as the comfort of 
the students. All the classrooms are light and 
airy, with wide windows through which pours 
the warm California sunshine. Ttie students' 
rooms are plainly furnished, but the boys may 
bring rugs, writing desks and such other 
pieces of furniture as will give them an at- 
irattive and honjelike atmosphere. Eash dor- 
mitory i» in charge of a master, assisted by his 
wife or n matron, who give the boys constant 
supervbion. 

The gyinna»ium, a fine modern structure, 
is thoroughly equipped with the best ami latest 
apparaluk. I'arallel and horizontal bars, Hy- 
ing ring», trapc/.es, and corrective apparatus 
offer e-very opportunity for the systeniatic de- 
vrto|>nierit 01 the body. 

Frw private or even inunifipiil swinuniuj! 



pools compare with the pool at IJelnmnt. It 
is seventy-five feet long and thirty-two feet 
wide lined with white gla/.ed tiling and sur- 
rounded by a red tiled walk, so that it is ac- 
cesible at every point. For the boy who en- 
joys swimming it is a haven of pleasure; for 
the boy who wants to learn to swim it is a 
source of safe instruction, under the super- 
vision of the physical director. The pool is in 
charge of an attendant at all times and new 
boys are not allowed to use the pool until they 
have proved their ability to take care of them- 
selves in the water. 

N'^arsity athletic teams represent the school 
In interscholastic contests with other prepara- 
tory schools. Belmont has teams in baseball, 
football, track, basketball and tennis. The 
various teams are coached by members of the 
faculty who are well qualified for this work. 

Intramural athletic contests are also part of 
the school program. Unless prevented by phy- 
sical disability, or for some other equally 
good reason, all members of the Upper School 



;(ri- required to take part in sonu- lorin of or- 
ganized athletics. 

Boys may elect the sport in which they de- 
sire to i)articipate, subject to the approval of 
the physical director. The clasificaiion of boys 
ill regard to weight, height an<l general abilitv 
gives all the boy> an equal opportunity and 
prevents their competing with those who are 
superior in physical prowess. 
Military Drill an'd Physical Exercise 

To secure the best physical development, 
habits of order, ncatnes and prompt obedience, 
military drill is one of the regular requir<- 
ments. No student is excused from it unlev^ 
he presents a doctor's certificate that he is ph\ 
sically unfit to drill. The school is in no wa-, 
under military discipline. 

The military drill is supplemented by the 
West Point setting-up exercises and by such 
other work in the open air as may best con- 
tribute to erect carriage, square shoulders and 
an alert step. Such other exercises arc given 
in connection with athletics as will aid in 
developing efficiency and good health. 



The Beauty Spot of the Peninsula 

BELMONT 
SCHOOL 

for 

BOYS 

BOARDING AND DAY SCHOLARS 

NATURE GAVE US HER BEST 
WE GIVE OlIR STUDENTS THE BEST 

College Preparatory. Lower School. Business 
and Commercial Training. Music. Supen-ised 
Athletics. Drill, Riding. Swimming. Tennis. Golf 

For (JaUitogiic addresi: 
Rev. James J. McHugh, J.C.B., M.A.. Headmasttr. 
Belmunt. C'uUluniiu. 



CUT FERNS 



POTTED PLANTS 



ClfT FLOWERS 



GARDEN VALLEY NURSERY 

1>. i.JAKIHALL'l J; SON.S 

Wholesale Florists and Shippers 

'l'<'li'|ili(iiit> ItAiidiilpli IUK4 

Ist AND MARKET STREETS. fOLMA. lAUE. 



The Bull Shop 

Ixjculeil <iii (lit! 

MAIN COAST HIGHWAY 

Une mil« below San Bruno, exuctty twn 
miles from Tanfinaii Haci' Track 

l.omihi !*ark, Cal. 



I »{It'll iiiilil J w III I'tixiu- AV> 

AI. NMIiianus Nest 

>iii tlif olil i.muty i>'M>l Ol tW>litiMul, KtiX- 
brciuli or I'ttuktrn Iniiiifis »vimJ K' 
order für $1 UU Mt^ivtmuta Luuvb MK' 

Altui « la (.*iti'«> 

Uttkt) nuervtttuuu with lu ft>r yuur c«un- 

tng (uirly Whrn »mtlD mv«!» ■ uull« 

It's roturniKt hurv Slmtty i>Arkuxs »^w 

AUKK WILXJAM» 



CALIFORNIA jÖl'KXAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



4.1 




Snii Jose Stale Collc^i— 'In- 
oldest normal srliool in C.ah- 
fornia. 



SANTA CRUZ 




HF. EARLY history of Santa Cruz 
County is very closely related to 
that of early California, for it was 
during thi- month of October. 1769, 
that the cxpcditifjn headed by CIov- 
ernor Portola reached what h now known as 
Santa Cruz County. Inspired by the glowinu 
description in the .liary of Viscaino. who in 
1602. sailing along the coast, found and named 
Monterey Bay. they traveled overland from 
San Diego, arriving at the San Loren/o River. 
It wa» at this time that the name Santii Cruz 
wa* given to the locality. 

Ill 17<>| the Mission wa* established am! 
worlt started in a j.rimitive way. an.l the fnmi- 
.lation of one of the most diversified anintics 
wab laid. Incidentally, the work of restora- 
tion of the Mifcuioil i» now under way, arul 
many relic» of the early days ^vliich have been 
prewrveil, will have a place in this hinhlinß. 
Today, in traveling througli Saiiia Cm/. 
County, over the finest of paved luiihway». 



past modern home, with the beautiful grounds. 
it is difficult to even imagine the hardships 
through which those early settlers passed. 

Small in area, probably no county without 
the metropolitan area entertains a greater 
„„„,ber of visitors during the year, for Santa 
Cruz County has long been recognized as the 
vacationists' para.lise. The city of Santa Cruz 
county seat, is situated on the north shore o 
beautiful Monterey Ray, 78 nules south of 
San Francis.0. with the Santa Lruz Moun- 
tains forming a background. Withm ten miles 

are found a number of delight u beaches 
where surf bathing may be enjoyed throughout 
the year in perfect safety, due to lack ot under- 
tow It is quite natural that all other onus 
of water sports should be i^opular Hence 
fishhig! yadmng and boating each has its 

"'only twenty nuimtes drive from the Santa 
Cru - Heach. over the beautiful San l.oren.o 
RZnrive.u.>h its ever-chang.ng vistas, are 



mmid those monarchs nt the ages — the i)ld- 
est living things on earth — the big trees. His- 
tory shows that the redwoods were first discov- 
ered in Santa Cruz County. This group which 
WHS last year purchaseii and opened to the 
public are known as the "Santa Cruz County 
liig Trees. The largest tree in the group is 
3U6 feet in height and 65 ieet in circumfer- 
ence. It was durmg the winter of IS46 that 
General Fremont, in command of all troops 
west of the Rocky Mountains, camped in the 
hollow of the tree which bears his name. Other 
trees are the General Grant. Harrison, Mc- 
Kiidey. Sherman. Jumbo and Cathedral 
Group. 

California State Redwood Park, familiarly 
known as Big Basin, consisting of nearly ten 
thousand acres, is another of nature's beauty 
spots, located in the northern end of the 
county. When the timber in that vicinity was 
rapidly being cut, and this particular tract was 
about to be taken over, a group headed by tlie 
late Andrew P. Hill and Josephine Clifford 
McCrackin, were instrumental in having this 
wonderful park, containing a wide variety of 
trees and wild flowers, taken over by the state. 
Many delightful resorts are now found in 
the most unexpected places, which a few years 
ago were almost inaccessible. 

Beautiful drives along the coast, through 
the mountains and into the valleys, go far 
toward making a stay in the county one of 
pleasure. 

During the time that the county has been 
developed as a v.icationland, other places of 
growth have not been overlooked. For many 
years Santa Cruz County with fertile Pajaro 
Valley in the southern section, was the center 
of the largest apple industry of California. 
During the past few years the shipments of 
lettuce, cauliflowier, fruits and vegetables of 
various kinds have amounted to around 30,000 
carlo.-ids per year. Watsonville, a Thriving 
city, is the center of this valley. 

The growing of bulbs and flowers has be- 
come an important industry, as have the grow- 
ing of poultry and artichokes. 

In Santa Cruz, the residents enjoy work 
and play under ideal conditions, with one of 
the mast equable climates In the United 
States, with a wealth of beautiful scenery. 

The cultural life is stimulated by splendid 
schools, clubs, fraternal organizations and 
churches throughout the county. 

Five splendid golf cotirses are available to 
resident or visitor. Airports have been im- 
proved. 

Santa Cruz County has gone far in its de- 
velopment since the arrival of the Portola Ex- 
pedition, but with the wealth of opportunity, 
it will continue to go fnr^^ilId in the coming 
yea rs. 



After you've lost money there's nothing 
so irritating as to hear of somebody who's 
made a lot. 

Fverybody seem> to turn partisan after 
tliey've received the propei publicity lor being 
nun-partisan. 



44 



r.TTFORXlA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



SAN MATEO COUNTY 

THE FLOWER GARDEN OF CALIFORNIA 




EN historic camp sites of the Portola 
Expedition of 1769, which discover- 
ed the San Francisco Bay while 
seeking the Bay of Monterey are 
^ in San Mateo County. 

The Portola Expedition left San Diego July 
14, 1769, and returned to that place about 
January 24, 1770, having undergone extreme 
hardship but without the loss of a human life. 
The make-up of the Expedition was: Comand- 
ante Don Gaspar de Portola, Padres Crespi 
and Gomez, Captain Rivera, Sergeant Ortega 
and 26 "leather-jacket" soldiers, Ensign Cos- 
tanso, an engineer, from the Regular Army, 
some servants and mission Indians from Lower 
California, in all about 64 persons. 

They travelled with a pack train in four 
divisions, having about 100 pack mules and a 
"caballada" and "mulada" (horses and 
mules) for relays. When they left Monterey 
Bay, without having recognized it, on Octo- 
ber 6th and 7th seventeen men were on the 
sick list and eleven had to be carried on 
litters, or wooden frames raised to the backs 
of mules. 

Long halts were necessary because of the 
serious condition of the sick but on October 
17 they crossed and named the San Lorenzo 
River and on October 20 they were camping 
at what is now Waddell Creek, the Rancho 
del Oso or Ranch of the Bears. Here they 
entered what is now San Mateo County. 

Camt No. 1 — October 23, near the mouth 
of Gazos Creek, named La Rancheria de la 
Casa Grande (Ranch of the Big House). 

Camp No. 2— October 24, guided by two 
Indians from Casa Grande they made camp 
at an Indian rancheria on San Gregorio 
Creek about half a league from its mouth, be- 
tween San Gregorio Store and Beach. Tired 
and sick they rested over the 25th and 26th. 

Camp No. 3— October 27, they travelled to 
and camped on the south bank of Purisima 
Creek where Costanso named the Indian vill- 
age on the north bank "Las Pulgas" because 
soldiers who occupied some abandoned huts 
were covered with fleas. 

Camp No. 4. — October 28, they travelled 
across the "Plain of the wild geese" and camp- 
ed close to the mouth of Pilarcltos Creek 
(Half Moon Bay today) where they noted 
Pillar Point. Portola himself was very ill and 
they rested here over Sunday, the 29th. 

Camp No. 5. — October 30, they travelled 
to a stream about \% miles north of Montara 
Light where their way was blocked by the 
Montara Mountain. This stream known to- 
day as Martini's Creek was named EI Rincon 
de las Almcjas or "the corner of the mussels" 
whicli food was badly needed. Here Sergeant 
Ortcea with a small party was sent to break 
a trail over the mountain barrier. 

CamI' No. 6. — (Xtobrr 31 tliey climbed the 
trail cut by Ortega and front the mountiiln top 
they fciiihted Point Rt-ych forty miles away to 
the north and aluo the I'arallones to the iveat 



northwest. Then they dropped down to a 
lagoon receiving what is today San Pedro 
Creek and camped near an Indian village. 
They remained here until the morning of No- 
vember 4th. After mass on the morning of 
November 1, Portola sent Sergeant Ortega 
and a party of soldiers on a scouting trip not 
to exceed three days In time. This was the 
day Ortega saw the southeast arm of the San 
Francisco Bay, but could not report that fact 
until his return the night of November 3. On 
November 2, Father Crespi asked Portola to 
allow some of the soldiers to hunt deer which 
had been sighted and upon their return that 
night they reported having seen an Immense 
arm of the sea. 

They were still seeking Monterey Bay 
where they hoped to find a supply ship and on 
the night of November 3, Sergeant Ortega's 
party returned firing guns as a signal of good 
news because they believed the Indians had 
told them that only two days distant from 
their camp was "a port and a ship therein." 
They confirmed the report of the hunters as 
they too had seen a great estuary or arm of the 
sea. It was decided to explore around the 
south and southeastern shore of this great arm 
of the sea. 

Camp No. 7. — November 4, having feasted 
on mussels at San Pedro Cove and being in 
better spirits they prepared to move to the east 
and south. Upon reaching the crest of the 
range trending northwest and southeast, they 
descended and entered the Canada de San An- 
dreas down which they travelled about one 
mile and halted at sunset at a lagoon the site 
of which is now covered by Lake San Andreas. 
Camp No. 8. — November 5, they moved 
south southeast, their trail covered today by 
the Crystal Springs Lakes and camped at a 
"iaguna grande" now covered by the Upper 
Lake, about two miles south of the Dam over 
which the Skyline Boulevard passes. Their 
travel account records that the mountain on 
their right was beautiful with groves of oak, 
redwood and other trees and dotted with mea- 
dow lands. 

Camp No. 9. — November 6, tUey travelled 
to the now famous Palo Alto Tree where a 
nursery occupies the site between the Camino 
Real and the Southern Pacific railroad. Here 
the expedition rested while Ortega was des- 
patched to skirt the bay and find the "port and 
a ship therein." He returned on the night of 
November 10 with word that the ship had not 
been found and this way had been barred by 
hoMile tribes, burned plains and another im- 
mense arm of the sea. Discouraged they decld- 
etl to return the way they had come. 

Camp No. 10. — November II, they travel- 
led two leagues on the back trail and camp"l 
in what is now the south end of Canada de 
Raymundo ni-ar the present Woodsidc. 

From this place they returned to San Diego 
to repuit lluir inability to find Monterey Bay 
(having failed to recognize it even on their 



return trip) but later to gain the greater credit 
of having discovered the Bay of San Francisco. 

• • • 

In San Mateo County are two historic camp 
sites of the Anzo Exploring Party which pre- 
ceded the main caravan of what is known as 
Anza's Second Expedition, which had been 
halted at Monterey in the spring of 1776. 
Anza's First Expedition had had for its pur- 
pose the blazing of an overland trail from the 
Presidio of Tubac, in what is now Arizona, 
to Mission San Gabriel in California, a dis- 
tance of more than seven hundred miles. This 
purpose successfully accomplished he returned 
to lead the Second Expedition which was a col- 
onization caravan of soldiers, padres and thirty 
families. More than thirty women accom- 
panied this Second Expedlrion and there were 
one hundred thirty-six boys and girls in the 
caravan. All told there were two hundred and 
forty persons and more than one thousand ani- 
mals when the Second Expedition left Tubac 
on October 23, 1775, for a journey of more 
than a thousand miles to establish a Mission 
and a Presidio on San Francisco Bay. Over 
the desert and then the snow-covered Sierras 
they fought their way. Horses and cattle died 
from cold and exposure, women wept at the 
unaccustomed sight of snow white peaks, but 
the caravan kept on. By March 10 they had 
reached Monterey Bay where they were wel- 
comed by the Presidio and the Mission San 
Carlos. Here the Second Anza Expedition was 
halted by orders from Rivera, the Command- 
ante of Alta California, until as he said, the 
Presidio and Mission could be established at 
San Francisco. 

On March 23, 1776, Lieutenant Colonel 
Juan Bautista de Anza left the Presidio of 
Monterey with an exploring party of twenty 
persons, including Padre Font, Lieutenant 
Moraga, ten soldiers and seven servants, to 
survey and establish sites for a Mission and a 
Presidio at San Francisco. Padre Font's diary 
and a map he made in 1777 clearly show their 
line of march and their camp sites are num- 
bered on his map. 

Camp No. 94.— On ALirch 16. 1776, the 
Anza Party passed the Palo Alto Tree and 
continued up the Peninsula until they had 
crossed the Arroyo de San Malco and camped 
at a dry water-course about one short league 
beyond. Their line of travel as shown by 
Padre Font's map was the same as El Camino 
Real today and tills camp site is about wherr 
Hurlingame Avenue crosics Kl Camino Real. 
in tti« City of Uuilingame. 

Camp No. 96.— On March _>'). 1776. when 
returning from the tip ot the Peninsula, Padie 
Font says they skirted the bayshore until they 
had crossed what is today the San Bruno 
mountain (from which the Palo Alto 'I're* 
WHS again seen) then cn>»ini; their prrvtou» 
tine of march they entered the Canada de San 



CALIFORNIA TOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



45 



Andreas down which they proceeded as shown 
on his map, until the San Mateo Creek had 
been crossed, then turned left through the hilU 
and then left again or to the north to camp 
on San Mateo Creek where they had crossed 
it on their trip up the Peninsula. Padre Font's 
diary and map show the camp site to have been 
where El Camino Real crosses the San Mateo 
Creek near Third Avenue in the City of San 
Mateo. 

Anza, the founder of San Francisco, must 
be credited with having successfully conducted 
his colonization caravan over one of the most 
difficult and among the longest overland treks 
recorded in the history of this continent. 
« • • 

In San Mateo County there is one Van- 
couver Camp, located at Belmont, and indicat- 
ed on the map by a triangle marked V-C 1792, 
within a circle. 

Capt. George Vancouver, commanding the 
English ship "Discovery" while in Pacific wat 
ers for a parley with Spanish officers on terr'- 
torial claims, brought into San Francisco Bay 
in 1792, the first vessel other than Spanish. 
He was a guest — probably unwelcome — at the 
Presidio and Mission at San Francisco and ?t 
the Mission Santa Clara. 

On November 20, 1792, Capt. Vancouver 
and seven of his officers with a sergeant and 
five soldiers of Spain from the Presidio, set out 
from the Mission Dolores to visit the Santa 
Clara Mission, "Having advanced about 27 
miles," they stopped at noon for lunch by th( 
side of a stream where there was an open spot 
nearly enclosed by hills on all sides and so 
beautiful that Vancouver says they left it r. - 
luctantly after a "most excellent meal," "with- 
some grog we had brought from the ship 
(spirits and wine being scarce articles in this 

country)." 

• • • 

Night had already fallen when they arrived 
at Mission Santa Clara. 

Pillar PoiNx-Sighted in 1585 by Fran- 
cisco de Gali-is the point of I^nd at the 
northern extremity of Halfmoon Bay. DeGah 
had been directed on his return tnp from the 
Philippine Islands to strike the California coast 
as far north as the weather would permit, sad 
down the coast and report his (indmgs. Ban- 



croft translates: "Then, being by the same 
course upon the coast of New Spain, under 37 
degrees 30 minutes (our Pillar Point is at 37 
degrees, 30 minutes) we passed by a very high 
and fair land with many trees, wholly without 
snow; there likewise we found a great store of 
seals; whereby it is to be presumed and cer- 
tainly to be believed, that there are many riv- 
ers, bays and havens along by those coasts to 
the haven of Acapulco." 

PUNTA DEL Ano Nuevo.— New Years 
Point was sighted and named by Don Sebas- 
tian \'i7xaino, probably because it was the first 
outstanding point sighted by his crew as they 
sailed from Monterey Bay on January 3, 1603, 
and was named for ttie season of the year. 
Here is located the New Years Point Light- 
house and a seal rookery with more than a 
thousand seals at some seasons. 

The Hosjmce— Built in 1778 as a halfway 
house between Mission Dolores and Mission 
Santa Clara. The site of this long low adobe 
and tile covered building is on the north bank 
of the San Mateo Creek where it crosses El 
Camino Real and opposite the Mills Hospital 
in the City of San Mateo. No vestige of it 
remains as the walls crumbled and fell during 
an earthquake in 1868. Tile from its roof 
are believed to be with other ancient tile on 
the railway station of the Southern Pacific at 
Burlingame. 

WoonsiDE Store— Built in 1854 by "Old 
Doc Tripp." It was the "community center" 
of the redwood lumbering operations of fifteen 
sawmills within a radius of five miles. Here m 
1854 one thousand lumberjacks got their mail, 
food supplies and liquid refreshment. It will 
be found a mile and a half from the present 
day Woodside on the Kings Mountain road. 
Place of the Brouerick-Terry Duel, 

1859 Here U. S. Senator David C. Broder- 

ick and Judge David S. Terry fought in the 
celebrated affair on the field of honor in Cali- 
fornia, resulting in the death of Senator Brod- 
crick. Their meeting was on September 13, 
1859. It will be found "in the lower or west- 
erly end of the first small ravine, which con- 
nects with the easterly shore of Lake Merced, 
just south of the county line between San 
Francisco and San Mateo." It is easily seen 
from the seventh tee of the San Francisco Golf 
Course. 



SONOMA COUNTY 

The Golfers Mecca 




FRESNO 

The Hub of the San Joaquin Valley 

RESNO is Spanish for white ash, 
and, like the many Spanish names 
remaining in California, is a 
legacy of the Mexican era. 
The portion of the San Joaquin 
Valley in which Fresno County lies was known 
only to Indians and occasional trappers prior 
to 1835. Then, in pursuit of a band of mar- 
auding natives who had been raiding settlers' 
homes in the coast valleys. Lieut. Gabriel Mo- 
raga and a company of Mexican soldiers tra- 
versed the central plain, and incidentally 
named many of the places they came to. 

Fresno County was formed in 1856 out of 
the then huge Mariposa territory. At the 
time, as a consequence of the '49 gold rush, a 
number of mining camps had sprung up near 
the upper reaches of the San Joaquin River. 
Coarse Gold Gulch was the most prominent of 
these settlements, others being Texas Flat, 
Grub Gulch, and Temperance Flat. 

Other early settlements were Rootville — 
afterwards called Mdlerton for General Mil- 
ler who commanded the military post nearby; 
Center\ille, on the Upper Kings River, which 
soon became a thriving agricultural commumy 
when post-gold rush sanity returned; Fire- 
baugh, so called because A. D. Firebaugh 
started a ferry there; Scottsburg, named for 
William Y. Scott, second sheriff of the coun- 
ty; and Kings River Ferry, later called Kings- 
ton, 

Millerton. on the San Joaquin River, re- 
mained the county seat from 1856 until 1874, 
when the coming of the railroad finally killed 
it. The population almost to a soul moved 
to the new site they had voted on. now cover- 
ed by the City of Fresno, but then merely a 
wilderness point on the new Central Pacific 
line. There was nothing around the town- 
site out of which to fashion homes, so the first 
Frcsnans brought their homes with them from 
Millerton. 

The colony idea supplied the first real im- 
petus to Fresno's development and laid the 
foundation of the country's future prosperity. 
This farming on a communit)' plan, which be- 
came quite a craze, would not have been pos- 
sible without the crude but still effective irri- 
gation system pushed forward by men like M. 
J. Church. By means of canals the waters of 
the Kings River were transferred to the thirsty 
Fresno fiats, and many new settlers were at- 
tracted to the district, mait of them to be ac- 
commodated on the tAventy-acre lots into 
which the various colonies were divided. 



To the south of Petaluma <.n the Redwood 
Highway lies Marvelous Marin with its cozy 
bungalow* and luxurious mansions hidden in 
pXon of greenery and blossoms. A visit 
Lthi. district would not be complete withou 
. trip .oMt.Ta,na!paIs. guardian sentinel of 
Ma vclou. Marin and .he Redwoo Highway 
.„..erinK 2700 feer in the air. 1 1— 



can be reached by automobile over well pa\ed 
roads. 

Golf: Those who enjoy golfing can be very 
nicely accommodated at the several golf courses 
in this district. Just outside of the city we 
li.ive the Petaluma Golf and Country Club, 
while in the Sonoma Valley the Sonoma Miv 
sion Inn Course is a very alluring atrractimi to 
those seeking recreation in this way. 



The chief industries of EiirekR and sur- 
rounding country are lumbering, dairying, 
agriculture, horticulture, stock-raising, wool 
growing, poultry raising, commercial fishing 
iind many manufacturing lines. Eureka ranks 
among the first ten cities of the United Stit« 
in the production of lumber, dairy producls 
and woolen goods. 



46 



CALIFORNIAJOUR>MLHISTORl^^ 



UAL 



KERN COUNTY 

A Veritable Horn of Plenty Embedded m a V.ilhy of Wealth. 




I N THE southernmost strip of the 
famed San Joaquin X'alley lies one 
of Cahfornia's largest counties— 
Kern. Protected on the east, south 
■uid west by high mountain ranges. 
Jl^^in^piously u-aterr.l by the mighty Kern 
River and innimierabie deep wells. Kern 
County is one of California's outstanding 
proofs of possible diversified development. 

Within the county may be found living con- 
ditions ranging from the primitive huts of the 
Tejon and Piute Indians to the smart and 
ultra-modern of Rakcrsfield, the county seat, 
a thriving community in excess of 34,000 pop- 
ulation. 

Stock raising, every conceivable agricultural 
development, dairying, mining, petroleum pro- 
duction, manufacturing— Kern County's ver- 
satile record might be continued almost in- 
definitely. 

Basking under the ardent valley sun. every 
imaginable crop is produced, developed since 
the romantic days of '61, when cattle was the 
chief and practically only industry known to 
this territory. Rapid development has come 
in the wake of the electrical engineer and the 
harnessing of the Kern River. 

The magnificent Sierra Nevadas hem the 
eastern border of the county, with Owens 
Peak, a towering landmark, 8,475 feet above 
sea level. The Kern River heads at the foot 
of Mount Whitney, the highest point in the 
United States, and from the eternal Sierra 
snows this life-giving flood comes into Kern 
County. 

To the south the Tehachapi Range forms 
the "saddle" between the Sierras and the 
Coast Range which marks the county's west- 
ern boundary line. Techachapi peaks vary in 
elevation from 6,000 to 8,000 above the level 
of the Pacific. 

These three mountain ranges are rich in 
mineral deposits and many fortunes have been 
found in their rugged hearts. Chief among 
the mineral products of Kern County are gold, 
salt, silver, miscellaneous building stones, bo- 
rax, cement, pottery clays, copper, gypsum, 
lime, onyx and pumice. Large deposits of 
tungsten were worked during the World War 
and are still active in production of this im- 
portant mineral. 

In the rich mountain valleys there are still 
ranches that were hoincsteaded in the tlay^ 
«hen Indians roamed tlic hills and plains, and 
adobe houses sixty or more years old are still 
occupied by descendants of tlw pioneers. 

Many orchards are now in evidence in these 
valleys. The elioicest of apples and pears are 
to be (ound in the Tehachapi Range, anil in- 
creasing demand has brought added plantiIlg^- 
To consider Kern County without thoughl 
of iia oil and gas development is impossible. 
In 1806 and 1897 w4ien the black gold was 
first found in the Kern River fields there fol- 
lowed the usual "boom" — the mad scramble 
lo ride the wave of prosperity on its crest. 



Fortune uas piled atop of fortune— but as 
field after field was developed, this industry 
has assumed a truly powerful place. The 
famed Kettleman Hills, lately in the limelight, 
projects into the northuestcni corner of Kern 
County. Oil produced in this county is of 
such fine quality as to warrant the United 
States Government setting aside for future de- 
velopment a large area of known oil bearing 
lands in the vicinity of the Elk Hills district. 
Kern County oil production from 1910 to 
1929 exceeded one billion barrels. Nineteen 
twenty-nine records showed that 5.574 wells 
were in operation, and hundreds of new wells 
have since been adde«'. 

The great supply of natural gas from these 
prolific fields is piped direct to the major cen- 
ters of San Francisco and Los Angeles for gen- 
eral, statewide use. while the rancher, suburb- 
anite and city dweller of Kern County has 
available an inexhaustable supply of econom- 
ical heat and light. Over one hundred manu- 
facturing plants in the county have taken ad- 
vantage of this natural power supply. 

In addition to the natural gas supply, there 
is cheap hydro-electric power produced in the 
mammoth generating plants of the Kern 
River. Excess quantities of this power is car- 
ried to the metropolitan area of Los Angeles. 
An out-of-doors paradise for the sportsman 
and public is provided in the mountains. The 
streams are stocked annually with game trout. 
(jamc refuges have been established. 

Highly medicinal cold and hot springs 
abound in the Sierras. 

Profuse citrus plantings are found on the 
rolling foothills up to elevations of eight hun- 
dred and nine hrmdred feet. "Air drainage" 
in citrus planting is followed, and the famous 
San Emidio oranges are one of the most pop- 
ular fruits available on the e.istern market 
through the winter months. Thousands of 
boxes of Kern County citrus fruits are in the 
Eastern market well in advance of such ship- 
ments from other territories. 

The exceptionally long growing season in 
Kern County permits very early shipment of 
apricots, peaches, figs, pears, plums, pomegran- 
ites and other deciduous fruits, th\is securing 
relatively higher prices. 

The high rolling mesa, at an elevation of 
approximately four hundred feet, is the most 
prolific section of Kern County. Interlaced 
with glistening irrigation canals and over four 
hundred miles of fine paved highways, pros- 
perous ranches and farms spread contentedly 
under the warm rays of the sun and prosperous 
communities all present a fascinating panorama 
from the airplane view. 

Other hunilreds of acres are planted lo al- 
falfa bay, and in 1919 this crop alone meant 
a return in excess of two million dollars to 
farmers. Corn, grain hay, barley, wheat and 
sileiigc crops in 1929 showed a net value in 
excess, of twenty-one million dollars. 'I'hese 
crops are not only vital to the dairv bu^incs^ 



of Southern California, where dairic must 
import food, but are one of the outstandinn 
reasons why the production of butterfat in 
Kern County is both prolific and exceptionally 
economical. 

Authentic figures showed a return in I i-1 
of almost one and a half million dollars for 
dairy products, while the average production 
per cow was 245 to .-^45 pouiuls of butterfat 
annually. With many newcomers in the dairy- 
ing field there is a still incrca.sing demand 
from Southern California, to which shipments 
are made by truck and rail. 

With low-priced, rich agricultural lands 
available in Kern County, an unsatisfied local 
demand, an ever-growing demand from the 
metropolitan district of Los Angeles county, 
the place of Kern County in the economic fiel«! 
of Southern California is easy to visualize. 

An outstanding agricultur.il development of 
the past few years has been the planting r)l 
the pure-bred Acala strain of cotton. The 
yield is exceptionally high (averaging over one 
bale to the acre) and better prices are paid 
for Kern County cotton by reason of its en- 
tire unifoniiity. No cotton pests have ever 
gained entrance to the field because of strict 
state and county quarantine. Cotton has be- 
come a major product, and keeps busy seven- 
teen gins, one compress, and a cotton oil mill. 
all operating under the most efficient and mod- 
ern methods. There is a long growing sea- 
son, from March to September, and the pick- 
ing season extends in good weather until about 
Christmas. 

The earliest of the fancy table grapes shi|v 
ped from the San Joaquin \"alley are from 
Kern County, and command exceptionally high 
prices in Eastern markets. In 1929 table 
grapes brought in ?l.700.000, while other 
grapes returned in excess of $1.400.000. 

Fifteen thriving communities, centers of 
agricultural development, and five towns, re- 
lying solely upon the oil industry of Kern 
County, have sprung up and developed in a 
relatively short period of time within a radius 
of 40 miles from Bakersfield, the county seat. 
Attractive homes, chiirches, schools and other 
public buildings are to be found in each com- 
nuinity. 

At Bakerslicld the stately courthouse is an 
outstanding example of the tvjie of structure* 
in the county. The bciutilul home of the 
Kern County Chamber ol Commrrcr is in 
modified Spanish style. Throughout the city, 
handsome ch\irches. club lumses. pre^entiou- 
and modern schooU. beautitul home* and mo '- 
est bungalows attest the pleasure aiul happr- 
ness of the residents. Wide, well juve ' 
streets, tree-shaded and cuul. make Baker lie' ' 
one of the most charming cities ut the entir ■ 
valley. 

The kern ^.ouiilv -Airporl, luirlhfast »'I 
llakei^lield. is one of the ^^orld'^ finest coun!> 
owiuhI ports, bearing the nlhcial riitine «1 
AlA. 

Modern Kern County extends (he viwt«! 
the fine, true hospitality ot the rral West. 
Conunercialisni in any (üim ha» iu>l take« 
a« ay tioni the people of Ken» the b*amitul 
spirit of Western ■"jov-of-lite," 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



-17 



A FEW INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT FRESNO 



^0 YOU KNOW: 

RESNO lias a population of SS.dllO 
in its nu'tropolitJiii area. 
I'rcMio County has a population of 
18ü,0UÜ. 

Fresno County ranks lirst In Anii-r- 
ttie value of production of figs and 



ica ni 
raisins. 

Fresno County ranks second in America in 
the production of table grapes and peaches. 

Fresno County ranks first in California in 
the production of horses and mules. 

Fresno County ranks third in the state in 
cotton acreage and the production of beef 
cattle and sheep. 

The San Joaquin \'allcy contains more than 
17,000,000 acres of land. 17 per cent of the 
total area of California. 

Cotton production in the San Joaquin Val- 
ley is three times as great per acre as the 
average in America. 

Cotton in the San Joaquin Valley com- 
mands a premium for quality, uniform staple 
and greater strength. 

Fresno has the largest raisin packing plant 
in the world. 

Sixty miles from Fresno is Kettlenian Hills, 
now considered one of the greatest oil and 
natural gas fields in the world. 

\atnral gas from Kettleman Hills offers 
great opportunities for industries dependent on 
cheap fuel. 

Fresno has the largest sugar pine lumber 
mill in the world. 

Farm acreage tn the San Joaquin Valley is 
7.500.0ÜO or one-fourth of the farm area of 
California. 

One-tenth of the |)eaches grown in America 
are produced in Fresno County. 

The government ranks Fresno County as 
the second richest agricultural county in the 
nation. 

Savings deposits in I-resiio City arc $42.- 
ÜUO.ÜOÜ. 

Manufactured products in Fresno last year 
totaled j;7 5,000,000. 

Fresno ranb fifth among California cities 
as an industrial center. 

Fresno has 370 manufacturing establish- 
ments, employing 12,000 persons. 

Fresno County has more irrigated land than 
any county in the nation. 

FreMio County produces over one-fourth of 
^11 grape* growji in the nation. 

Roeding Fark in Fresno, with 1 57 acres, .s 

famou. for it. varieties of trees, shrubs an.l 
Howcr». 

Kearney Park .nd Kearney H-l-anl .,.- 
not«] beauty .pot. in Central tahfnnna- 

The State University Kxperimental V.n^n 

i» Iwatird on the Kearney E-^t««- 

TI.Fr«no State College rank. ..thej^r 

U,^.t nl..c«.ional "-ri.n.ion n. C..hforn.a 

with in enrollment exceeding ^,ouu. 



Last year -I4.'?3 1 pupils were rnrolled in 
the public schools of the county. 

Fresno has 76 churches, some of them noteil 
for their architectural beauty. 

Fresno has miles of attractive districts with 
some |)alatial homes. 

Fresno has three fine golf courses. 
Fresno has six theatres, three of them new, 
magnificent structures. 

Fresno with its warm and equable climate 
and low hvimidity is a healthful and delipluhil 
place in which to live. 

Fresh fruits and vegetables arc on the mar- 
kets every day of the year. 

Fresno County \\as 250 miles of paved high- 
Mays, 2,500 miles of oiled roads and thousands 
of iiitIcs of good dirt roads. 

Fresno has a splendid airport a mile and a 
half from the postoffice. 

The airport has the most up-to-date light- 
ing system for night flying. 

Air mail planes and commercial passenger 
and express planes, arrive and leave day and 
night on regular schedules. 

Scenic flights for passengers are arranged 
over the High Sierra. 

Total assessed value of property in Fresno 
County is $209,000,000. 

The county tax rate is $1.95. 
Paralleling the San Joaquin Valley is the 
High Sierra, one of the great scenic areas 
of the world. 

Within several hours auto ride from Fresno 
are Sequoia, General Grant, and Yosemitc Na- 
tional Parks. 

In Sequoia and General Grant National 
Parks, and the Mariposa Grove, are the Se- 
quoia Gigantea and the Mannnoth Redwoods. 
'I'hese huge forest monsters are found no 
place else on earth than in California. 

Sequoia Park has more than a million Se- 
quoia Gigantea — 12,000 more than ten feet 
in diameter. 

The (Tcneral Sherman tree, the champion 
of them all, is in Sequoia National Park. 

The Yoseinite with its sheer cliffs and beau- 
tiful waterfalls is America's most popular park. 
Scenic grandeur unsurpassed in California 
will be easily accessible to the public. 

Vistas of marvelous beauty, picturesque for- 
ests and mountains, trout filled streams and 
dashing waterfalls are part of these California 
playgrounds, 

In 3.500 square miles of the High Sierra, 
there are 145 peaks of mnii' than ll.OOl) feet 
elevation. 

The Swiss Alps, in 13,000 square tniles. 
have only 1 1 5 peaks of more than I 1,1100 k-et 
elevation. 

Ansel F. Hall, naturalogist, says nothing in 
Europe compares to the grandeur of the nii:h 
Sierra of Fresno County- 



Fresno County produces more than 1 00 
food products, 

Fresno City is iniilway between San Fran- 
cisco and Los Angeles. 

The San Joaquin Valley has a population of 
550,000. 

There are 5,950 square miles In Fresno 
County. 

Fresno County has three million eight hun- 
dred thousand acres. 

The largest fig orchard in the world — 
12,000 acres — is in P'resno County. 

Production of minerals in Fresno County 
averages $8,000,000 yearly. 

Fresno County produces more peaches than 
the entire state of Georgia. 

Land in Fresno County will produce an av- 
erage of 459 pounds of cotton per acre against 
an average of 157 pounds in the United States. 

Great iron and oil deposits have not yet been 
developed. 

Fresno County is the center of the great San 
Joaquin Valley. 

Fresno is the gateway to the great Kings 
River Canyon. 

Fishing and hunting abound in Frefiio 
County. 

Fresno City has an assessed valuatirn of 
over 50 million dollars. 

Fresno City and County are noted for their 
fine schools and churches. 

Fresno is the trade center of the entire San 
Joaquin Valley. 

Fresno is the agricultural and scenic center 
of California. 

Fresno is locateti on the (lolden State High- 
way. 

Tresno County gives a trvie picture of the 
real California if you travel the Golden State 
Highway. 

Home life is ideal in all ways in Fresno 
City and County. 

Fresno is a city of di\ersi(ied agriculture. 

Fresno County is the geographical center of 
California. 

Fresno City is 236 miles north of Los An- 
geles — 186 miles south of San Francisco. 

The poultry industry flourishes in Fresno 
County. 

Fresno City has 12 children's playgrounds. 

Fresno County has a million and a half 
acres under cultivation. 

Fresno County is a large dairy products 
county. 

Fresno County lias a total income of more 
than 150 millions of dollars. 

The famous Coalinga oil fields arf located 
in Fresno County. 

The world's newest luul richest oil field — 
Kettleman Hills— is locited p.ntly in Fresno 
(.'ouniy, 



48 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



DEVELOPMENT OF HUMBOLDT 
COUNTY, CALIFORNIA 



M 



I'MHOLDT COUNTY is one of 
rhc industrial and commercial cen- 
ters of Northwestern California ultli 

\f <■■'-'" .1 population of 43,189 people ac- 
< ' 1 ording to the 1930 census. 

1 hi ihicl industries engaged in are lumber- 
ing, dairying, agriculture, horticulture, wool 
growing, sheep, cattle and poultry raising. The 
lumbering industry employs in excess of 6,5(10 
men, and has an annual payroll of six million 
dollars Including the manufacturing of split 
redwood proilucts. 'I'his industry pays a 
large percentage of the county's taxes. Hum- 
boldt's lumbering resources are not likely to 
be rapidly depleted owing to the reforestation 
program that is under way in the county. 
Humboldt County leads in reforestation in 
that more trees are planted each year than 
are cut. 

Next in importance to the lumbering in- 
dustry is the tourist business. The all-year, 
famous scenic Redwood Highw.iy passes 
through the entire county u-ith hundreds of 
thousands of tourists seeking recreational sport 
within the confines of Humboldt each year. 
There are over 800 miles of streams in this 
county also drawing thousands of tourists who 
are seeking the pleasures of fishing. The Red- 
wood Highway starts at San Francisco, ending 
at Grant's Pass, Oregon, and is a completely- 
graded, graveled, and hard-surfaced highway 
in its entirety. It passes through over 100 
miles of dense forests, 80 miles along the Eel 
River Canyon, and with 75 miles of coast 
scenes. 

Next in importance is the dairying industry. 



The annual average butterfat proiluction per 
cow in the State of California is estimated at 
150 pounds, while in Humboldt County it is 
much nearer 300 pounds. This jiroduction 
compared with the performance of some of 
the high producing herds, demonstrates the 
possibilities of an increased production with 
the present available acreage with more in- 
tensive dairying. 

Agriculture and horticulture arc flourishing 
industries of Humboldt County; the moist, 
cool climate and the diversity of fertile soils 
being a great aid to these industries. There 
has never been a crop failure in the county, 
nor arc crops affected by pests of any kmd. 

Sheep and cattle raising form one of the 
county's most important industries; this in- 
dustry does an annual business of about $2.- 
000,000. Humboldt's beef cattle are noted 
for their excellent quality and are accepted by 
packers as superior stock. There arc approxi- 
mately 50,000 head of beef cattle in the 
county. 

There are over 100,000 sheep in Humboldt 
County, and the frequent rains and mild cli- 
mate assure the best of green pasture to the 
sheep throughout the year. Healthy, well- 
fed sheep produce strong staple wool, which in 
Humboldt County is practically free from the 
sand and dirt usually found in grease wool. 
The annual clip from the 100.000 sheep in the 
county is approximately 1,500,000 pounds. 
Eureka is the center of woolen manufacturing 
in California; the Eureka Woolen Mills befng 
the largest producer of «'oolen goods in the 
state. They have one of the best equipped 



mills for fine goods on the Pacific Coast. The 
annual consumption of grease wool alone by 
these mills is 1,500,000 pounds. Eureka 
suitings arc characterized in the trade for their 
fine texture and are made of pure Heecc wool. 
The demand for Humboldt woolens has in- 
creased so ra|)idly in tlie past few years that 
neu' additions arc made each year to the null 
to meet the actual demand on production. 

Another industry which is gaining much 
headway in Humboldt County is that of poul- 
try raising. It has been proved by experts that 
Humboldt's equable climate is ideal for poul- 
try raising. The rains do not harm the in- 
dustry in the least; in fact, they are beneficial 
by producing an abundance of green frc], 
« ithout which no poultry can be healthy. 

Another industry still in its infancy in thiN 
section is that of deep sea fishing right off 
the immediate coast. Humboldt Bay has an 
abundance of edible fish all the year 'round. 
Due to the development of the ice and cold 
storage business in Eureka, deep sea fishing is 
becoming a valuable asset to this section. One 
hundred and seventy-five commercial fishing 
boats operate out of Eureka. 

Eureka is the judicial head of Humboldt 
County and is the metropolis of Northwestern 
California, having a population of 16,000 
people and a strategic location on Humboldt 
Bay, on the Redwood Highway, and also the 
Northwe-jtern Pacific Railroad. Eureka is 286 
miles north of San Francisco and the most 
westerly city in the L'nited States. 

Humboldt Harbor, on which the United 
States Government has expended over seven 
million dollars, and is still continuing the 
work, is the only landlocked harbor of refuge 
of over 400 miles of rugged sea coast bet^veen 
San Francisco and the mouth of the Columbia 
River. 



OUiaa. iFaBl|t0n Irötaurant 




TOLLINI BROS., Props. 

Ifjl/j/i and French 
Dinners, also a b Carte 

If you are a connoisseur of good 
food dine at the Chas. FashlOiT Res- 
taurant, where, day in and d:>y o.it, 
the finest food procurable is skillf jHy 
prepared and sarvod in a myriad of 
tempting ways. You 11 enjoy lb,- lur- 
roundings, the z\du of p.opi; yoj 
will find here and the splendid s rvic3 
that we extend to our patront. 

Try one of our tpeciat dinners th^ 
next time you dine out or invite 
friends to dine with you. 



243 O'Farrell Street, San Francisco 



Telephone (iArfield »723 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORIC.\L ANN 



UAL 



40 



The Fascination of San Francisco 




ß>' Herbert O. Warren. Californiam. Inc. 

ITTING on its hills like stoned silks am! satins-modern Chines, youth, dress- 
Rome, fascinating ban Francisco has ed in t h n hy,^h, «( a ■ . i.- 
, i„„ .k^.v u. A , 1 t T) LCI in the height of American fashion, and 

a iiirc that s hard to overlook. Born it-,,. 

siJeakmg Imglish without a trace of accent. 



of the sea. it may be her salty tang 
that captivates the visitor ... or per- 
haps it's the year-round superb climate ... or 
the friendly people that make up this metropo- 
lis by the Cioldcn Gate. Re wliat it may, San 
Francisco, busy with the future, still cherishes 
an old tradition that stic is not likely to forsake 
— to live c.ich day to the fullest, come what 
may. 

Let's take a glimpse into this teeming city, 
verging on a million people; let's stroll ahout 
and watch her work — and play. It is only 
natural that one of the greatest land-locked 
harbors in the world would give rise to an all- 
i m p o rtant 
shipping ac- 
tivitj'. Find 
your way 
along the 
miles of wa- 
terfront and 
docks, and 
you'll see 
the vessels 
of all na- 
tions, load- 
ing or un- 
loading. In- 
dustr>*, to'^, 
is seen in 
her h u g e 
faaorie* an^i 
many touf r- 

ing stately 
down - town 

buildings. 
\'isit Fi^h- 

t T m a II " ^ 

Wharf ami 

watch r li ' 

fleet of hull 

d r e d b of 

*ma!l boats 

that »uppiv 

the city with 

fresh wa- 

ifnti. Sam- 
ple s o ni e 

yourtcif at 

b,r. alont the .idcwalk. where fresh cr., 
»ttam before your eyes. 

Venture afo.^ in Chin.o^vn. .he larKest 
ouuide of China, and VOuMl he tr.nsplan ul 

.„ another Un.i. H.re are fascinating h U 

.hop. «id brilliant Oriental b^/^-'N^'''^ 

wondrou. w.r« o* «Ik. ivory. purcela.nanJ 

bronze. You'll f.nd your«.H bargain-ng h 

.Ad obi«:U, ..r«,gely beautiful ... -h- "'■' 

' tiiiiü kinuAphcM-. 

Tbr.....uId..uitl.M.e.mUjm - 



Vegetables you'll never know the name of . . . 
the goldsmith's minute skill . . . rows upcp 
rows of bottled herbs in the apothecary shops, 
none of which have a sign or label to guide 
the druggist — these and more will make your 
Chinatown adventure one long-remembered. 

The adventurous forefathers of San Fran- 
cisco left a heritage in the famous restaurants 
and cafes. They are still here — from splendid 
dining rooms of world-registered hotels, to 
tiny foreign kitchens deep in some lantern- 
lighted street. Penetrate the Italian quarter» 




rails 



.SV-/1 I-"ui.n>o Civi. Criil.r 



,„dyou'IMiscover the art of Neapolitan chefs 
-and around the corner a co/.y, quiet French 
cafe awaits. You have but to name your 
choice dishes-San Francisco's cosmopolitan 
.„.tei. satisfied by the cooks of al..ost every 

i.atiof.. 

On San Fra..ci«co*s downtown street cor- 
■11 find a sight seldom witnessed— 

:ld .enc which i. a toa.t t«. the Ha> r. 
Uion's perfect climate. 



A four-mile Park, lying between two large 
residential districts, .nnd rciching out to the 
waters of the Pacific, Is worthy of a week's 
exploration — if you have the time. Golden 
Gate Park, one of the world's largest, contains 
acres of plants, lawns, shrubs and trees — and 
no sign that warns one to keep off the grass! 
Bears, deer and herds of buffalo; a tremen- 
dous zoo and aquarium; playgrounds; lakes; 
a museum and bandstand . . . 1013 acres just 
for fun! 

Sports? San Francisco will satisfy the most 
cx.icting. Here are four municipal golf courses 
— one of which overlooks the Golden (latt 
_. with many 
passing ves- 
sels. From 
t h e seven- 
teenth tee at 
the Lincoln 
Park, you'll 
be sorely 
tempted to 
rmulate Mr. 
I Bobby Jones 
land drive 
off f o r the 
I distant Ma- 
rin shore, a 
mile away. 
I Then there 
I IS tennis — 
I a whole 
I ocean beach 
in which to 
swim, or the 
I world's big- 
'fst outdoor. 
Iit-ated tank 
it you pre- 
K riT a mere 
t Ii o u s .ind 
toot water- 
way — base- 
'.-all in the 
I ( i n Id en 
1 late Park. 

[£_ _ , ,1 n d other 

(Cowrtesy Culitormniis. Inc )' e C rcatioOS 

that uHll 
keep you busy. 

Yachting on San Fra.iciseo Bay and the in- 
land waterways — to say nothing of the broad 
Pacific— has hundreds of devotees, and the 
trim white craft can be seen cutting the calm 
waters any dny. 

Many are the hours that you'll want to 
spend in San Francisco. You'll want to look 
out from the balustraded terrace atop Tele* 
graph Mill, across the Bay and upon the city 
w ithin the «all of next-near hills, ^'ou'll want 



so 



CALIFORNIA JOURN^AL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



ro ride or walk through St. Francis Wood, 
with its foiintanis and trees; through Forest 
Hill and Wcstwood and the other heaiiiiful 
home areas beyond Twin Peaks; through Sea 
Cliff and the residential districts that ride 
the ridge above the CJolden (Jatf.-. You'll want 
to visit Sutro Gardens, nesthng among the 
cliffs above Seal Rocks ... the little Coney 
Island on the beach ... the Presidio and the 
Mission Dolores. 



Art in the Public Library 

A unique project of beautifying municipal 
buildings has been started In the main building 
of the San Francisco Public Library, Civic 
Center. 

Sponsored by a group of public-minded citi- 
zens, the first half of a series of ten mural 
paintings have been installed in the great hall 
at the head of the main staircase. The artist, 
Gottardo Piazzoni, sometimes called "the dean 
of San Francisco painters," has taken as his 
theme, "an epic of California, on land and 
sea." The group, "The Sea" is that already 
hung, A\hilc "The Land" series will be com- 
pleted within a year. 

The spirit of the cool northern coast of 
California has been preserved in "The Sea," 
the soft brown, green and gray tones remin- 
iscent of many parts of the coast-line, without 
being photographic of any definite location, 

Two figures gaze peacefully at the far hori- 
zon, a ship blends into the panorama, but the 
mood of serenity and the vastness of the sea 
is undisturbed. 

The treatment of the mural is modern in 
that there is an absence of detail, but the ac- 
tual painting is that of the older schools, the 
sure experienced strokes of the master land- 
scape artist. 

Local art lovers are responsible for the pro- 
ject, the entire cost being subscribed to "The 
Association for the Piazzoni Murals for the 
San Francisco Public Library." 



Overlooking the Golden Gate 

Down the five mile strait, named the Cjolden 
Gate by General Fremont, Don Juan Manuel 
Ayala poked the bowsprit of the San Carlos 
in l??*!, opening to civilization the largest 
landhxked harbor in the world. Along this 
gate, which averages two miles in width, arc 
numerous points of interest. 

Morning is the best time to view the ("Jolden 
Gate. From Fort Mason we see the U. S. 
Govcrtiment transport docks, tlie only docks 
of the kind owned by the United States. Skirt- 
ing the Marina and y.iclit harbor, we pass 
over the site of llie Panama Paridc Fxposition, 
viewing the last beautiful remnant of that 
maBiiificcnt fair, the Palace of Fine Arts. 

The Presidio .(Spanish, meaning garrison) 
is the largest military reservation within cor- 
porate limit». It contains 1,542 acres and is 
one of the country's oldest military garisons. 



It was founded in 1776 by Juan Bautista de 
Anza, who brought his forces overland from 
Tubac. Arizona. Passing through its wooded 
and landscaped grounds, we see the Letterman 
General Hospital. National Cemetery, and the 
embattlements bristling with great coast de- 
fense guns. 

Sunset from Land's End is a sight long to 
be remembered. As the sun sinks into the 
horizon, forming varied and fantastic shapes, 
the Gate becomes truly one of gold. Sights 
such .IS these, coupled with views of the shin- 
ing cities of Marin County, with stately Mt. 
Tamalpais in the background, making golfing 
a real joy on the Lincoln Park Municipal 
Links. Nowhere is found a more sightly 
course. 



Chinatown 
Almost on the ven' fringe of San Francis- 
co's retail shopping dis- 
trict, you will see the 
pagoda gables of San 
Francisco's Chinatown 
overhanging the street 
and pointing the way 
to the largest Chinese 
colony outside of 
China. Here are Impos- 
ing bazaars, packed 
with lacquers, brasses, 
embroideries. sandal- 
wood boxes, tea set*:, 
curios. Restaurants on 
the upper floors serve 
tea, pickled ginger an<I 
Chinese or American 
meals. Hope not for 
the "opium den." It i-> 
not here. 

During the holiday 
season and especially 

Chinese New Year, the streets take on a fest- 
ive appearance. Of particular Interest to the 
visitor are the joss houses; the telephone ex- 
change, where calls are made by name, necessi- 
tating the memorizing by Chinese girl oper- 
ators of more than 2,000 subscribers' names; 
the jewelers at work on the side streets ; and 
the newspapers which are composed by hand 
from thousands of pieces of type, each repre- 
senting a word sign. 

Chinatown is best seen at night. The trip 
may be made alone or under tlirection of 
licensed guides or sightseeing companies. Vis- 
itors may wander about securely at will in 
what is still the most interesting foreign quar- 
ter in the United States. 

Portsmouth Stjuare. At the southeastern 
corner of Chinatown, between Kearny, Clay 
and Wastiington Streets Is the historic Ports- 
mouth Square. Here the American flag was 
raised on July S, 1846, and here at the time 
of the gold fever the Vigilantes dealt out swift 
and summary justice, 

In the park is a monument of Robert I^ouis 
Stevenson, probably the greatest of the many 
authors wlio have lived in San Francisco and 
celebrated it in story, verse or book of travel. 



Ocean Beach and Seal Rocb 
San Francisco's Ocean Beach is of never- 
failing delight to the visitor, many viewing 
an ocean for the first time there. There is a 
fascination in the great waves as they crash 
majestically on the rocks. From here, on Point 
Lobos, named by the Spanish for sea wolf or 
seal, are seen many of these same sea lions 
romping about the rocks. 

Chutes at the Beach is San Francisco's only 
amusement park, located on the westerly edge 
of the city, where the land meets the Pacific 
Ocean. Miles and miles of automobiles can 
be seen parked on the great highway running 
parallel to the mighty sea — numerous places 
of amusement are open to the public every 
day of the year. On the hill above is located 
the flower-dotted estate of the late Adolf 
Sutro, Comstock millionaire and ex-San Fran- 
cisco mayor, which is now open to the public 
as a park. 




Urakrs Hiiiyorlujok Cmss, im Golden Uale Purk, which commenio rales tin' 
first I'lmrch services ever heltl in the English luiiguuge on the Pai-lflc Coast. 

.At the entrance to Golden Gate Park arc 
the world's largest windmills, which pump 
the water for Golden Gate Park, and 
the Gjoa, Amundsen's ship, the first to navi- 
gate the Northwest Passage. Down the Great 
Highway fallowing the shore line is Fieish- 
hacker Playfield. with its play grounds, tennis 
courts and mothers' rest rooms. The FlcJsh- 
hacker Zoo. which is the largest exhibit of ani- 
mals in captivity, Is open to the public from 10 
a. m. to S p. m. daily. 



Golden Gate Park 

Golden Gate Park is one of the Hnest ex- 
pressions of landscape engineering to be found 
anywhere. This, the largest man-made park 
in the world, consisting of 1,013 acres, four 
miles in length, has been transfonned since 
tS70, from a va-tt waste of sand dunes into a 
veritable fairyland of gem-like lakes, forwis. 
streams and waterfalls, gardens jiiJ |>l»y- 
grounds of every description. Here are found 
hills with a beautiful vista from their summits. 
S baseball di.unonds. a doxen tennis courts a 
bowling ureeii, a complete children's |U«>- 
Ciouiul, a .10-ncie stadium with u truttinjf 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNC.-VL 



51 



speedway 60 ft« wide, a football and track 
stadium, bear, deer, one of the finest buffalo 
herds according to Col. Buffalo Bill Cody. 
kaiig»roo, elk, Alaskan moose, the largest 
windmill in the world, thousands of varieties 
of plant life, museums, numerous statues and 
monuments, the Prayerbonk Cross commcmnr- 
aling the Hrst religious senicc on the Pacific 
Coast in the English language, held by Sir 
Francis Drake's chaplain, June 24, L579. at 
Drake's Bay. a few miles north of the Golden 
Gate. The Gjoa ("h'oah, Capt. Raold Amund- 
sen's boat, the first to sail through the North- 
west Passage from Atlantic to Pacific in 1908, 
and numerous other attractions are also found 
in the Park. 

To best appreciate the park one should 
walk through its flower-bedecked paths from 
the Haight and Stanyan entrance, visiting the 
conserxatories with their rare exotic collection 
of tropical plants, water lilies and ferns. 

On the hill above is the aviary filled with 
birds bright as flowers in their dazzling plum- 
ages, many of which ramble at will over the 
park. 



PIONEER MARINA PHARMACY 
OWNS OWN BUILDING 

The rent question does not bother Eugene 
J. Toschi, pioneer Marina druggist, since he 
owns the building that houses his Sierra 
Pharmacy at 2231 Chestnut Street. Mr. 
Toschi showed keen foresight when he chose 
the location for his store, when only a few 
scattered houses could be found in the Marina 
and every indication still pointed to Lombard 
Street as the coming business street of the new 
Marina District. 

His Sierra Pharmacy is now located in the 
ver>' heart of the modern shopping center on 
Chestnut Street. Business was good from the 
start, and Mr. Toschi met the demands put 
upon his Sierra Pharmacy in a decided and 
constructive manner. A post office was estab- 
lished for the convenience of Marina resi- 
dents. Delivery service was built up to an 
unexcelled system. A circulating library was 
kept up-to-date and books renfe<l at a nominal 
fee. The modern quick-lunch and soda foun- 
uin service quickly won a lot of enthusmt.c 

patrons. 

Mr. Eugene J- Toschi now manufactures 
hi. own ice cream that is Mipcnor to many 
faaory product*. 'I'hc saving in cost is so 
great that Mr. Toschi can sell his ice crean. 
at the lowot pre«-nt day prices and still pass 
a lot of additional quality on to his customers. 

Mr. 'iWhi is one of the charter members 
of the Marina Mcrcha.its As.oc.at.on. and .^ 
MiU iu:l,ve on the board of directors. 



Once a im^nth every man complains of his 
famil/» mtravaftance». 

A m«wilM«r,ive.nd fordet almc^t any 
.■,,r.r, around tl« hou- except lett.nu 
- »hiker get empty 



Henry H. Simons 

REAL ESTATE 

2320 CHESTNUT STRET 
Telephone WEst 3367 
San Francisco 



MARINA THEATER 

2141 Chestnut St. at Steiner St. 

San Franciaco, Cal. 
THE HOUSE OF BEST PICTURES 

Telephone WAlnut 1234 



Hollywood Hair Cutting 
and Beauty Parlors 

C- H. McGee, Prop. 

2093 Chestnut Street 
2241 Chestnut Street 

Tel. W.Vlnut .5764 San FrancUro 



Morris Smoke Shop 

2293 Chestnut Street 
Cigars. Cigarettes and Tobacco 

F. J CAPOBIANCO, Prop. 



Chestnut Hardware 
Store 

DAVID MOSER, Prop. 
3209 Chestnut St., at Pierce 

Tel. «Est 8727 San Francisco. Cai. 



Harry Dahneke 

Autx> Tops and Painting 

_-All Work Guaranteed— 

1656 Pine Street 

at'-t-i Sim Francisco 

Tel. OHÜ«iiy 3(ii7 



RALPH G. HOBSON 

D. I). S. 

Phono ELUrlilB" 0354 

Hours: 

üAM.toSP.M. Saturdays. 7 to 8 

ma CIIENEUV STREET 

Han l-ViuiclMco 



Cifiars 
ClgarettP.-i 
and 

Shaving 
Sots 



T4I€ 



[h^ Kodalt 

Lh'VflopInf; 
end Roll 
Film 
Printing 



ESSANAY DRUG CO. 

2124 Chestnut Street 

Near Steiner, opp. Marina Theater 

San Francisco, Calif. 

The Marina's Cut Rate Drug Store 
standard Remedies 

Household Drugs 



Toiletries 



Marina De Luxe 
Delicatessen 

2154 Chestnut Street 

MRS. MARTEN. Prop. 



MARINA 
CREAMERY 

M. A. PEKAR. Prop. 

3226 Scott Street 

San Francisco 

We carry only the Choicest 
of Dairy Produce and 

ICE CREAM 

Phone in your orders for special molds 

designed to please your guests. Also 

Special Brick and Bulk Creams. 

Tel. FI llniore 8000 



"VERNA JEAN" 
KINDERGARTEN 

MRS. ELLA L. SHAFFER 

IVlophonti VVAInut 3208 

2357 CHESTNl'T STREET 

San Franilsco 



J. & G. Coffee Shop 

Hume of Downy Klakt- UouglinuU-- 
We Si-rve the Best 



2084 CHESTNl'T STREirr 

Sun Fraiu'lwti 



52 



CALIFORNIA J^ttrKAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



r^~^ EVENTUALLV 

TKg WoRip'ö Centra ^ YIchtin^ 

ÖAN Fr^ciöco13a\'" 

<3y jAClvPBN5HAM 







VERY WISE man— I think it was 
King Solomon — once said that there 
were four things in the world too 
wonderful for him to understand. 
^^ ^^ One of these was the way of a sliip 
in the sea. The way of an eagle in the air 
and the way of a man with a maid were two 
of the others; but he put the ship first because 
he saw in her both the majesty of flight and 
the caprice of love. 

Little, perhaps did the wise king dream 
that those who came after him would make 
sport of his wonderments in the centuries to 
come. But so they have, and we find the 
people of the world, loving. Hying and sailing 
for fun, with the greater hazard for the better 
sport. 

Yachting combines the sporting clement 
with a complete detachment, hard work and 
a picturesque quality not found elsewhere in 
the wide outdoors. Sailors are born with a 
love of the sea and would sail for this alone, 
but to be a social succes yachting must offer 
something as well for those vicarious sports- 
men and women who get dressed for the occa- 
sion and look on. 

The beauty of a ship under sail is legend 
and a thing of universal appeal. Sailing is one 
of the sports which looks nearly as much fun 
as it is and an activity in which the spectator 
to a large extent participates. This gallt-ry is 
essential to the success of any sport. It brings 
the color, furnishes the conversation and com- 
pletes the picture. 

On San Francisco bay this gallery gathers 
along the green lawns of the Marina to cheer 
for a white-winged fleet which races, cruises 
or idle» at will on an inland sea with 1500 
mile« of navigable waterways just over the 
bow. 

There it no duplication of thi^ region cither 



for sailor or spectator. Here one can look from 
his place at the breakfast table to his yacht 
mooring and yet be within ten minutes of his 
office. On his way to either, he can study the 
sea through the Golden Gate and read the 
storm signals on top of the Merchants' Ex- 
change. 

The yachtsman of San Francisco can hoist 
his sails more quickly than he can open his 
golf locker and he frequently does. With this 
novel contiguity sailing becomes not only a 
holiday or week-end business, but a regular 
recreation that one may take for an hour or 
extend into a fortnight of cruising. Yet a boat 
at the front door is of no use unless there are 
place.': to go and a wind to take you there. 
These complete a yachtsman's paradise. 

Gne sails from the snug yacht harbor on a 
twenty-mile channel breeze which blows con- 
sistently from the northwest throughout the 
summer. In thirty minutes he can be in Sau- 
salito. a village rising on steep-sided hills, more 
picturesque than Sorrento in Italy. Mt. '1 am- 
alpais towers majestically behinii it, the waters 
of the bay stretch deeply to the south, while 
to the east in the warm shelter of Richardson 
H;iy one may anchor to explore a shore lineil 
with arks, busy boatyards and derelicts hauled 
n|i hv -^iilt water tramps inr hahitatinn. Across 



this magic cove is Belvedere Island, with rich 
foliation and residences atop and a sandy beach 
with driftwood at the water's edge for the 
small boat sailor who wants to broil his steak 
ashore. 

It is twenty minutes around the point of 
Belvedere to Tiburon. where t\vo yacht clubs 
fill the sheltered cove with craft of ever>- kind. 
There is anchorage here with an atmosphere 
of rest, leisure and pleasant isolation. Striped 
ba.ss run through Raccoon Straits and, with a 
trolling plug asteni, one may pick up a fish 
for supper in the twenty-five minutes to Para- 
dise Cove. 

Here you can slip into a Jeep water anchor- 
age not fifty feet from shore behind the lr.i 
of the wooded hills. The grim gray bulk of 
San Quentin prison stands out sharply on the 
point a few miles above. Two old steam 
schooners huddle together at a dock below, 
while across the bay the Richmond hills, stud- 
ded with white oil reservoirs, look down at 
the tankers anchored at their feet. 

From this point on, there is a lifetime of 
interest. Through straits and narrows, around 
points and islands, one may sail to the ver>' 
door of a country club at San Rafael, pass the 
night in the shelter of the great navy yard at 
\'aIU-)u, or go iin for ninety miles and more 



Daniels Realty Co. 

RKALTORS 

HtiiiH«, l-'Iiit«, I^'iilais. Loiui», Iiisuranv» 
G [ DANIELS 



V\\mw WAltiut VVm 
208(1 CHKSTNl'T HTBKKT 



Daniels Realty Co. 
RKAi;n)Rs 

Homes, Flttta. Rttutuls. Umna, Iii»ur»uce 

C. H. HANCXlCK 
Manag«r Insurancv DopartiutfDt 

■iÜHti tilKSTNl T STRKI*n' 

Tol. U.lluiit UM 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



53 



to Sacniniciito or Stockttm tliiougU vivcr chan- 
nels as wonderful as any Livingston saw in 
Africa. Trees overhang the water, wildfowl 
and fish are plentiful, and if you walk over 
the river bank a few hundred yards you can 
get a bucket full of ripe peaches for carrying 
them away. 

Running from tliese great channels of the 
Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers are miles 
of sloughs which connect these ocean arteries 
with each other and with adjacent rivers, to 
fonn a water maze it would take a whole 
summer to explore. There are islands and 
warm sunny beaches of white sand on which 
to land. At the occasional drawbridges one 
can leave an order for ice or groceries which 
a nearby village merchant will deliver in a 
few hours. 

But there are still other places. Away south- 
ward stretch miles of sailing ground. Through 
the battle fleet of the Pacific, past long quays, 
around Hunter's Point \\here lie the Lexing- 
ton drydocks, and on, there are yacht clubs 
with anchorage and a welcome every eight to 
ten miles all the way to San Jose, nearly fifty 
miles below. 

Across the bay from San Francisco the Oak- 
land estuarj' winds inland to end in an ex- 
pansion of arresting beauty at Lake Merritt. 
Along the estuary shores are hundreds of rel- 
ics of the days of sail. There are fine, full- 
rigged ships, still sound; tall-masted barken- 
tines for ghosting on the southern seas; the 
Alaska packers, as able a sailing fleet as ever 
put from shore; and a host of others moored 
together, their spars and rigging etchmg a 
romantic picture against the blue of the sky. 
Occasionally one of these old ships is taken 
to Los .-Vngeles Harbor or to Catahna Island 
to make one of Hollywood's whaling pictures 
and she lives again in proud splendor as her 
sails are set to the westerly and her broad 
bows rise slowly to the easy swell of th 
Pacific. After a hectic movie career nvo of 
ZThave found refuge in lovely Catahna 
H^^bor. where they lie slowly falbng prey to 
worms and dry rot and the divers ravages o 

time One who sees them thus cannot help but 
/Mithat it is a sad end for such stately craft 
What stories they could tell of days gone by! 

Others go north on the more serious bus.- 

n fishing where wind and sea brmg 

„e^ of '^^'^"^..^^Hey once knew so well. 

of gold for teaK „^o^nds as summer 

i_ A In the nuDlic gru""" 

XhcMT are i.»- competitive side 

of ya.ht.nB? ^ ' ^^^ ^^.j ^la^^es of twenty. 
„pen, cla^ or ^ ^i^^^^^^j j„,l^^ 

Vou can race a bo«^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ -^ ^„, ,,,k. 
„r artiipct' wit 1 ^^ ^j^^ .^.pken.l or in the 
ooed. V"u ca" . ^ competition for an 

„.iddle there/if ^'^^^ 

hour or a 'o'*"'^ . ^^^ than your spirit, 

H your notnicn » 




One of the most active 
and progressive men in 
the Manna is Mr. Edw. 
P. Barron, ouner of the 
Altirina Theater, Air. 
Barron has been a leatler 
in civic affairs all his life 
anil by his action has 
furnished proof that he 
not only preaches prog- 
ress but leads the proces- 
sion of protjressive busi- 
7iessmrn. Iff erected the 
hcnutifui Marina Theor 
ler building when the 
district u-as in its in- 
fancy, demonstrating 
thereby his implicit faith 
in the astounding devel- 

^^ opment of the district. 

Tlie~mcrchanls and property owners look towards him as a leader and as su, I, he has proven 
himself for the benefit of all who dared to follow his lead. 

you can confine racing to the bay. If you drive 
your ship and like green water over the bow. 
you can race around the Farallone Islands 
and if the sea is in your blood and adventure 
in your heart you can race to Hawaii or Ta- 
hiti. 

This last race is the deep water classic of 
the world, covering 2300 miles in about sev- 
enteen days. If the wind is fair, the finish 
puts you in Tahiti for Bastille Day. No torn 
telephone books or ticker tape will flutter 
down upon your weather bow when you get 
there, but you will see a natural celebration 
you will never forget and Commodore Gar- 
land will greet you in a suit of tan and a 
beach cloth, to show how things are done in 
the South Seas. Or if you run to Honolulu, 
you will squat at a luau and learn the mean- 
ing of the word okelehau, even if you do not 
drink it. and go surf-riding off the Moana at 
Waikiki. 

From the highways and parks about San 
Francisco Bay you can watch its races. From 
the finsh line you cheer on the leaders as the 
boats tack within hailing distance across a 
strong tide and a stiff breeze. Or sitting high 
on the hills or the ocean heads, you see the 
currents and shifts of wind deploy to turn 
victory to defeat. The winner is not always 
the same— the elements see to that. But he 
wins gaily, loses well and waits on life with 
a smile as the tide turns against the wind, the 
whitecaps spring up and the sails and the sun 
go down. 



Official Heatliight Testing Station 
No. 442 

PRESIDIO BATTERY & 
ELECTRIC SERVICE 

DELCO — BATTERIES — HOBBS 

2204-10 LOMBARD STREET 

At Steiner 
Telephone WAlnut 5096 



Sign of the Elephant 

CIRCULATING LIBRARY 

3345 STEINER STREET 

Near Chestnut 



A lot of US applaud because we're glad the 
party's over. 



THE QUALITY OF OUR 

ICE CREAM 

Tells the Story 
12 convincing flavors Daily ^^C 

Per quart . J^*» 

Many delicious Specials at our Fountain 
LUNCHES SERVED 

Eastman's Creamery 

3260 CHESTNUT STREET 

\\ Alnut GS84 

Wo maintain an efficient delivery service 



Harbor View Market 

HENRY OSWALD, Prop. 

Dealer In 

CHOICE MEATS 

Phone WEat Ö3Ö8 

1886 UNION STREET 

San l<'ruiii'Uco 



Plain Sewing Alterations 

All Kinds of Children's Clothes 

Made to Order 

THE KIDDIE KOOP 

\\\- MpefiHlii^f lu 

CHILDREN'S HATS and COATS 

Mrs, Hobl)3 and Mlas Dyaon, Props, 

3224 SCOTT STREET 

Phone WAlnut 07S8 

134 WEST PORTAL 

Phone OVt-rlaml m>73 



54 



CAUFORXTAJOURNALHKTOMC^ANN^ 



Commercial Development of the Marina District 

Marmj Ahrchmts Association a Great Factor for 
ness and Prosperity 



Progr 



HE first time the many advantages 
of the Marina District were brought 
forcibly to the attention of all of 
San Francisco, was in 1915, the year 
^^^^^ of the Panama-Pacific Exposition. 
\Ü^ Franciscans carry with them the mem- 
ories of the beautiful builtlings. lighting effects. 
Tower of Jewels. Fine Arts Palace and of 
the extremely interesting exhibits sent here 
from all parts of the world. 

Strange to say that after tlie close of the 
Exposition, the Marina District lay dormant 
until 1924, without development of any kind 
or character. No street work had been done, 
nor had any buildings of any kind been 

erected. 

In this year, however, two local real estate 
firms, that of George E. Belvel and Roth- 
schild Bros., realizing and appreciatmg the 
desirability of the Marina as a residential area, 
sent a representative to New York to per- 
sonally contact Mrs. Virginia Vanderbilt, who 
owned about half of the area. Mrs. Vander- 
bilt inherited this land from her father, Sen- 
ator Fair. Mr. Belvel, the representative 
above mentioned, found Mrs. Vanderbilt a 
woman of rare charm and beauty. 

Senator Fair, during his lifetime, had al- 
ways conceived the Marina as an industrial 
section because of its water frontage. 

After many months of difficult negotiations, 
the sale was consummated with Mrs. Vander- 
bilt's attorney for her holdings to the Marina 
Corporation. This corporation was composed 
principally of a group of local builders and 
developers. This corporation immediately 
proceeded to pave streets, lay sewers, side- 
walks, water and gas mains and do the many 
other things that are connected with the 
launching of a subdivision. These street im- 
provcments represented an investment in ex- 
cess of $350,000. ' . 

The streets of the Marina District lymg 
between Fillmore and Scott, north of Chest- 
nut, presented a very difficult problem to the 
developers who desired to improve the present 
street layout. In order to accomplish this, 
however, it was necessary to receive the coop- 
eration of other land holders. Unfortunately 
the>e folks could not be prevailed upon to re- 
align the streets and therefore the developers 
were compelled to proced with the strets as 
they then existed. 

While this work was going forward a com- 
prehensive advertising campaign was started 
and resulted in the sale of the Vanderbilt 
holdings, consisting of about twenty blocLs 
being ajniplrtely sold out in less than two 
year», U was originally anticipated that to 
»ell this amount of property would take at 
least three years and probably four or five. 
However, buyers were quick to appreciate tlu- 
advanlai-es of good climiite, living dose in, 
and excellent value«. 



It is interesting to recall that the f^rst sale 
made by this corporation was to Meyer Bros., 



the builders, who purchased the two block» 
extending from Pierce to Scott and from 
Chestnut to Alhambra. They likewise imme- 
diately started building homes and flats, which 
were promptly sold upon completion. 

Within six or seven years after this develop- 
ment ^vas placed upon the market, out of forty 
blocks comprising the Marina District, ap- 



R. T. LEWIS 

JEWELER 

FINE WATCH REPAIRING 

3163 CHESTNUT STREET 

San Francisco 




Dr. Clifford A. Vogt 

DENTIST 

\VBat 4878 
Res. Phone BAyview 4340 

2088 CHESTNUT STREET 

Hours 9 to 6 

Evening's by Appointment 



Al. J. Schwarz, M. D. 

ÜENEK.^L MEDICINE. SVUGERV 
AND OBSTETRICS 

Office Hours: 

2 to 5 and 7 to 8 P- M. 

Phone WAlnut 5119 



3300 SCOTT STREET 

San Francisco 



rmted agar Stores Sales Agenej 

Bonie's Smoke Shop 

Complete Line 
CIGARS. CIGARETTES. SMOKERS' 
ACCESSORIES AND PERIODICALS 



2178 CHESTNUT STREET 

Phono WAlnut 1861 




Marina Food Palace 

ALBERT J. GIULLANI 

MEAT DEPARTMENT 

HIGH GRADE MEATS 

Phones: 

WEst 8136 

WAlnut 0421, 0422. 0423 

2175 CHESTNUT STREET 

Saa Francisco 

Sally Chorney and Lou. Sacks. Props. 
phone FDlmore 529S 

Jolie Beauty Salon 

Specializing in 

NEWEST PERMANENT WAVING 

AND HAIR TINTING 

Including all branches of Beauty Work 
Open 9 to 8 p. m. Saturday 9 to 6 p. m. 

2031 CHESTNUT STREET 



FRASER'S 
SERVICE STATION 

WM, S, FRÄSER 

FREE CRANK CASE SERVICE 

Washing, Polishing. Greasing 

GAS AND OIL 

Phone Fillmore 2212 

Cor. Lombard and Steiner Streets 

Sim Fnuubicu 



DEL-MAR 
BEAUTY SALON 

ronntrly Delor«» 
SADIE Z. ROBERTS 

aOUO CHESTNUT STREET 



Carmel Crisp Shop 

Tho IMiu-t' ül IV Hundred Dellcacl.« 

Everything Always Fresh 

Carmel Crisp Pop Corn. Hot. Buttered 
Pop Corn, Butler, Crisp Nuts. Electric- 
ally Toasted Bridge Mix. Cashews Pe- 
cans. Almonds. Jumbo Peanuts, Choco- 
late Coated and Salted Peanuts. Home- 
made Fudge and Chews 

TZ'iö Chestnut St.. üp|). .\vila St. 



I'liwu^ FlUiuort' «yu H Wilson 

WE SHOW SIGNS OF UFE 

Wilson s Sign Shop 

Show Cartls, 

Window Backgrouiuia. Theater Lobbies. 

Paper Sign». Cloth Sign». Gold l^af. 

Wood. Metal and Wtiidow Sign» 

^358 Ut>MH AKl> STRtJ^rT 



""" ''"' ''"" """'-'■J «i.!. (l.«s, h„„,„ „i 
apartiiietus. "" 

This u„,„ual -.„d ,rc,„e,ul„,„ b„,.|,,. 
..vuy«aM™c,pallvdue,o,h,,,„,J;,_ 
Manna has ,„a„,. „„,„„, advantages. Th 

aor^ly,„g,„chcwes,,,hcbay„.i,l,i,sYacl, 
Harbor and bath.n, beach ,„ ,he „onb, Fort 
Mason and Lobes Sq„are Park lying o the 
.«t and the ,„teres,i„g and .nusual view „, 

the h.lls ly.ng to the south, eapped ,vi,h their 
interesting skyline. 

Thi. trcniendo.s building development has 
actually added many, many thousands of dol- 
lars to San Francisco's assessment roll with a 
corresponding increase in tax receipts. 

The Marina has been an outstanding sub- 
division of San Francisco due to the excellent 
typt ot buildings erected and to the compre- 
hensive advertising campaigns that were used 
and likewise to the foresight of the developers 
in settmg up proper restrictions, establishing 
set-backs, mmimum costs of improvements 
and recial restrictions. 

The Marina District proper is rapidly be- 
coming a shou- place of San Francisco, due to 
the fact that it is entirely surrounded by public 
improvements of a costly and progressive 
nature. 

Lying on its western border is the rebuilt 
Palace of Fine Arts. The Palace of Fine Arts 
remains as a memory of that marvelous and 
never-to-be-forgotten exposition held here in 
1915. The Palace remained for some years in 
a rather dilapidated condition but finally was 
taken over by the City of San Francisco due to 
the aid of many public-spirited citizens and the 
cooperation of the United States Government, 
which deeded the land on which it rests to 
the city. The result has been a renewing of 
the old splendor of the Palace of Fine Arts 
and today it stands refreshed and renewed 
among beautiful grounds and landscaping as 
an everlasting artistic monument revered not 
only by San Francisco's citizenry but admired 
by all who visit us. Likewise the interior of 
this vast building has been put to a worthy use. 
JTie San Francisco Park Commission has 
Iransfonned the interior into a huge play- 
ground for tennis enthusiasts by the construc- 
tion of ten modern tcrmis courts which arc ex- 
cellently lighted for play in the evening .^5 
Well a* during the day, this improvement has 
afforded an opportunity for the young and old 
alike to participate in a hcalrhy form of recre- 
ation, and appreciation is hereby extended to 
ill« Park Coinmiifiion for its farslghted and 
(■■iccestful development of this project. 

Hounding the Marina on the north and 
along the bay, omc again our city fathers have 
»uccewlcd in developing a great center of city- 
wide iniere»t and activity — huge sums have 
been ex|>efid»l for the development of a Yacht 
Harbor cxlrnding many blocks in length. 
\1t»drrn fa^ilitie» have been made available, 
■'»h tlir re»ult tlut this harbor now berths 
i,.U of lK*at« raniiing from very ino.iest 
N, ywhi» of (lalatiaJ cjiara^ter. 'I'hin is a 
beauty *jMt umurpJuKwl the world over and i» 



i^^ddition profitable ,„„„ City „, San Pran. 
ciSLo in revenue. 

Adjoining this Yacht Harbor, the city h,s 

e:::;^'^t'"^^'^^^^'"^^-hofconsid- 

-able size where daily you „,11 .ee residents 
^^^d\ as visitors enjoying the Marina sun- 
shine and advantages of a welt-kept sandy 
beach. In addition are large grass areas for the 
children and convenient rest rooms for all. 

Lying to the east of the Marina District we 
hnd an area composed of many square blocks 
given over by the city as a complete recrea- 
tional center. Here we find well known Funs- 
ton House. M-hich has a complete g>'mnasium 
where all community contests are held, such 
as baskerbali. etc. The grounds surrounding 
the Funston House are large and can accom- 
modate three separate baseball diamonds. In 
one section a playground is devoted to the 
smaller children, having playhouses, sand pits, 



^"■ing'^ and many other recreational attrac- 
tions that all kiddies enjoy so much. Also 
within this park are numerous tennis courts, 
horseshoe pitching grounds, golf driving nets, 
putting greens and bowling grounds. 

All the above mentioned developments, ly 
iiig to the north of Chestnut Street has added 
a population of approximately 25,000 people. 
This large increase together with the popula- 
tion adjacent to Chestnut Street in all other 
directions required a complete modern shop- 
ping area to properly accommodate so vast a 
development which in reality amounted to a 
small city within itself. 

This need for a shopping area has been 
answered by the zoning of both sides of Chest- 
nut Street from Fillmore to Scott Streets. 
This area, besides being on the main car line 
serving this district, fs happily situated in the 
center of the development and admirably 



MISS ELAINE 

DANCING STUDIO 

— at — 

VERNA JEAN KINDERGARTEN 

Tap - Ballet - Acrohiilics 

Russian and Ii„li,w B.illct Danan.j 

2357 Chestnut Street 

Phone WAInut 3208 
NEW CLASSES FOR BEGINNERS 
NOW FORMING 
^>'^'"tc Lisi'tus hy .Ipi'innlnunt 



ROMAN STUDIO 

CIRCULATING LIBR.\RV AND 
GIFT SHOP 



New Address 

2263 CHESTNUT STREET 

Library Greatly Enlarged 
NO MEMBERSHIP FEE 
Always the Latest Fiction 



Phone WAInut 2997 

DORAN'S PHARMACY 

PRESCRIPTION DRUGGISTS 

PARKE DAVIS PRODUCTS 
2007 CHESTNUT at FILLMORE 



The Scott Cafe and Coffee Shop 

SPECIAL SUNDAY CHICKEN DINNER 
DAILY SPECIAL LUNCH 35c 

Exclusively for those who appreciate the Best 

Quality— Service— Popular Prices— Private Booths— Delicious Coffee 

3242 SCOTT STREET, SAN FRANCISCO 



Reliable Service Fireproof Storage 

FIGURE WITH US WHEN YOU WANT TO MOVE 

Telephone WAInut 53(j7 

BALLARD VAN & STORAGE CO. 

PERSONAL SERVICE 

3230 FILLMORE STREET, SAN FRANCISCO 

Furniture. Baggage, Pianos, Moved, Shipped, Stored. Country Moving, 

Van Service 



56 



serves «11 the surrounding populafon conven- 
iently. The wisdom of this zoning by the c.ty 
authorities has been amply demonstrated by 
the tremendous growth of Chestnut Street as 

a business artery, whereas at the outset of the 
New Marin, development Chestnut Street m 
ihe area above mentioned consisted of vacant 
hns, today it houses a complete busu.ess devel- 

"''HeTcyou will find stores, markets and shops 
of every household requirement, housed .n 
buildings of the most modern arch.tectura 
beauty, featuring the latest m dayhght store 
buildings. This complete shopping center to- 
gether with the beautiful and comfortable 
Marina Theater which is likewise s.tuated m 
the heart of the Chestnut Street busmess area, 
has made for a community' appeal which .s 
rapidly resulting in a great civic sp.r.t to the 
benefit of not only this little city of the Manna 

but to the city of San Francisco as a whole. 

The Marina Merchants compliment them- 
selves on the fact that today it is not necessary 
for anybody living in the district to go to the 

city proper for anything that they m.ght need, 
as the district has ten large modern markets 

unexcelled any place throughout the oty. It 
also has eight modem equipped drug stores, 
also four complete exclusive lad.es ready-to- 
wear shops, where the latest styles are show-n 
to the market. Many f^ne equipped beauty 
parlors, an exclusive men's, ladies and chdd- 
rens- shoe store, and an exclusive h.gh-grade 
men's and boys' furnishing store. Two fine 
hardware stores. Woolworth 5- and lO-.ent 
store. The marina prides itself on its eatmg 
places, having eight large up-to-date restaur- 
ants and cafes, in addition to the complete- 
ness of the public service, the distr.ct has sev- 
eral other fine stores for convenience to people 
living in the district, comprised of barber 
shops, cleaning establishments, stationery 
stores, creameries, delicatessens, etc. 

The health of the district is amply cared 
for by several excellent dentists and doctors, 
some of whom specialize in attention to chi d- 
ren Due to the climatic advantages of the 
Marina, it is not lacking in playgrounds and 
parks, by which the district is completely sur- 
rounded. , ,, 

The district bas a very progressive Mer- 
chants-s Association, composed of 100 mer- 
chants in the district, who are continually fig- 
uring out means of helping the shoppers in 
the district, and making general improve.nents 
i„ the district. The president of the Associa- 
tion is Mr. Dave Moser, who has been m the 
district since it started a number o years ago. 
Mr Hud Weiser is secretary of the Associa- 
tion The members are at all times ready to 
give up their time to help out this fast grow- 
Tng little district which has the eyes of the 
ci^ of San Francisco looking on and admir- 
ing the pep and enthusiasm shown ni this sec- 
tion of the city, which i. directly responsible 
for its rapid growth and development. 




Men really have the best of it and the 
women know it. 



Everybody would be a paid reformer if 
raising money were just a little easier. 



F. BROWN 




Marina Do-Nut-Ree 

Club and Lodge Orders a Specialty 

Telephon« WAJnut 7851 



3343 PIERCE STREET 

San Franelsco 



Starters. Generators. Ignition Tires. 

Valve Grinding. Eastern Oils 

Wlllard Storage Batteries 

Phone \VEst 9983 

Marina Auto Electric 

JACK LUGO 
All Work guaranteed for 5,000 MUes 

3360 FILLMORE STREET 

At Lombard 



Phone Flllnion- 9^82 

Harbor Auto Service 

J, McINTYRE Jr.. Prop. 

3300 LOMBARD STREET 

Corner Steiner 
Washing. Polishing, Oil Change. Greas- 
ing. Tire Repairs 
WE CALL FOR AND DELIVER 

Monthly Kates 



MARINA RADIO 
and Electric Company 

Fnimore 2131 
A. C- (Tony» KUSICH 

3182 CHESTNUT STREET 

San Francisco 

Established 1924 



SIERRA PHARMACY 

EUGENE J. TOSCHI 

HOT FOUNTAIN LUNCH SERVED FROM 11:30 TO 2:30 

FAST MOTOR DELIVERY 

VICTOR FRENCH CUSTARD ICE CREAM 

Served at Our Fountain and DeUvered at the T,me You Want It 
Phone WAlnut 1500 

2231 CHESTNUT STREET 



GUS' BAKED HAM INN 

DROP IN TO SEE US AND ENJOY OUR 

LUNCHES 354» DINNERS 50,. 

Full Course 

ALSO BKEAKFAST 

Oor steals and chops ^^^^ ^ ^ ^t^ ^ ^^' ^^^^"^ "°"- "^" 

GUS' BAKED HAM INN 

0105 CHESTNUT STREET, near the Miirimi Theater 

We WLTO the First R<.-.staurant in the Miinna 



J 



Never again dors a man feci as important 
.nd *uo-...(ul as "., the .lay he graduates 
from coUtgc. 



PERFECTION 

We Call we -,u,t »aUe your OM ^--t. ,.e.. but;^ - 

& De Ver i„rand d>™ng Be,vi<.e. The nu«l d';«"'<i S«"-"! 
may be sent to us wlhout fear on yuur part '^'^^-'^ WAHUlt 
ti harm. Beeause we clean a garment IhorouRhly .t sta^s _ - ^ • 
c"ean longer than if cleaned by ordnuiry cleansers. Z 3 X 9 

FINE ART CLEANERS AND TAILORS 

21)55 ItAKEK STKEET. »enr l.oinhurO 



CALI FORMA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



57 



THE SOCIETY OF CALIFORNIA 
PIONEERS 




I INCF. history s.. .v,.,„.,«,,.j .., 

itself, and as the wag adils, "histor- 
ians repeat each other," I'm not 
going to oblif^c the editors of The 
(Jalifoniia Jnunial by writing 
a history of The Society of California 
Pioneers myself. Not when I can so easily 
quote from the San Francisco (ihroniclt of 
Sept. 9, 1884. It's a pity, rather, that space 
forbids reprinting their historian's long and in- 
teresting article. However, little bits of it, 
culled from here and there, will serve almost 
as well. 

Said he, and he did not sign his name, "'1 he 
fact is well authenticated that The Society of 
Pioneers was or- 
ganized in Aug- 
ust 1850, but of 
the early strug- 
gles of the associ- 
ation, and the 
trials and tribu- 
lations of the 
charter members, 
little is known 
save as handed 
down by tradi- 
tion, as the rec- 
ords of the So- 
ciety, with tlu- 
exception of a 
single book con- 
taining the Con- 
stitution and the 
signatures of » 
few members 
thereto, were de- 
stroyed in the 
great fire of M^V 
1851, which laid 
waste almost the 

"''^l^'carly Pioneers .ere b,a>. men and 
Im« was no easy task. In fact ,t .s 

'""•!? tone of *=-">"''«^^"'"=^"''f 
rrths ndful of earnest, fearless ,ncn, who 

beset this na Pioneers that an as- 

-^^'^^^''^'''^"^tve of immediate benefit, 

='"'*"**'" t urge intbc near and far future. 
Califonna .it la e Francisco was 

■'inthcy^ars^l»'*^,^';, ,.,,,,, been 



liy H. P. Van Sicklen- 
■ommonly repeats zens. (or only the !>ioneer. in thc_ true sense 



/.en», IUI wi",i >■■- 

of the word, had come to stay The rest pro- 
posed to strike their tents as soon as a good 
stake was obtained and return to the States. 
An eager, restless, nervous, buying;, selling, 
laughing, struggling population, thinking well 
of themselves, and somewhat despising the rest 
of mankind; digging gold, much of it to be 
squandered: and building towns, mo.st of them 
to be burned by fire or flooded by water, yet 
steadily advancing in wealth aiul prosperity 
until the day when it was announced that the 
State had been admitted into the Union. 

"To the blue sky went the triumphant ac- 
claim of this many-sided people and thousands 




p.n-, of tlu Uhrury .n,l Museum of Tin- SruiCy oj C.r.fonu. ho. 



u.-if requested In join the procession m re- 
spect to the memory of President Taylor. 

"That demonstration was by far the grand- 
est in the history of the city, and it was the 
first public appearance of the Pioneers of Cali- 
toriiia as a distinctive organization. Very soon 
a Constitution was drawn up and adopted, 
and so was born The Society of California 
Pioneers whose purpose it was to cultivate so- 
cial intercourse among its members, to create 
a fund for purpo es in their behalf, to collect 
and preserve information connected with the 
early settlement and subsequent conquest of 
the country, and to perpetuate the memory of 
those whose sagacity and enterprise had in- 
duced them to settle in the wilderness and be- 
come a new State. 

With the passing of the '49ers themselves, 
the charitable funds were diverted for the 
maintenance of the famous old museum that 
is so well remembered. It was an intriguing 
museum filled 
with relics of 
L-very kind. Here 
was the Sutter 
Gun, given by the 
the Russians occu- 
pying Fort Ross 
;iTid by them to 
Captain Sutter. 
Here was the 
M o n u m e n tal 
Kell, the first fire 
alarm bell erect- 
ed in San Fran- 
cisco and used by 
the Vigilance 
C nmniittee o f 
IS56. Here were 
the flags of the 
First Regiment 
of the New York 
\'olunteers, un- 
furled at the Pre- 
sidio in San 
Francisco in 1847 
and the Bear 
Flag, and the 



a„ anomolous city. 



Its like had never been 



TeToreand nVver, in all probability, will 

be ^n ^e»'"; . ,„„,t destructive fires e,i- 
had b«'» *truc j^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ,||. _^ I^H^^^^_ ^^^^j 

tailing a loss ^_^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^,^^,_.^. ,;^^^ ,,.jj 
,hc prevailing^ J^ j„cendiaries. The population 
been the u'or ^|,if,i„g. niadc of the good 

^-a» suddenly Mt.^ ^^^^^^ g^^^^. .^^ j,,^ ,jnion. 

and tl>e ''^'*^.|^^,,j,,_ Australia, Mexico, and 
*"^ *''^* '. mostly men whose ambition 

'^^''.X'mon'y-''-»^' '••''''''''■■ ''™' 

w» t" ""' ■„,, oJ becomini: permanent citi- 



of grateful hearts were bowed in pious thank- 
fulness that California was now one of the 
States," no longer a foreign land. 

•t)n_^lK^djlax_oLAu£us(J850, when 
the steamship California arrived bringing 
news of the death of President Zachary '1 ay- 
lor, Mayor lohn W. Cleary called n meetuig 
of the citizens to arrange for a public dem- 
onstration in the President's memory. Up to 
this date, the Argonauts as a rule associated 
in distinctive groups according to the States 
from «hich thev ha<l emigrated. Meetmgs of 
these groups were promptly called, and among 
other assemblages was an incidental consulta- 
tion of a few 'old residents' at the Delmomco 
Saloon on Montgomery Street. Only five per- 
sons were present, but the next day the 
Courier, a spvißhtly daily, carried the news 
that the 'old residcits' of California had or- 
ganized ; that II. W. Halleck had been elect- 
ed President ; J. P. l.«se, Vice-President; J. 
C. U. Wadsworth, Secretary, arul Samuel 
iirannan. Marshal, and that the 'old iesident>' 



Mexican Flag that was taken from the Cus- 
tom House staff in Verba Buena when the 
United States took possession in 1846. News- 
papers, relics from all over the world, and 
maps, all housed in the building that James 
Lick had made possible for the Society— the 
same James Lick whose generosity had given 
California the Lick Observatory, the Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences and many other 
public benefits. 

Then came the fire of 19Ü6 and all that 
irmained of the Pioneers' Museum, and the 
iHHlding that housed it. were the two steel 
vaults that stood one above the other o.i Pio- 
neer Place at Fourth Street. Withm these 
vaults, fortunately safe and sound, were the 
rarer ma.uiscripts and printe<l material, the 
germ from which the new museum was to 
grow. For a new building was erected an.l 
the members gave of their own collectiou>, and 
gradvially the new library and nmseum has 
hecoine one of the most important in Califor- 
nia. 



58 



CALIFORNIA JOURXAL HISTORICAL AXNUM- 



Nou-, in the spacious rooms «t I he Society 
of California Pioneers, which are maintained 
by and for the members, but which are al- 
ways open to the public, may be seen hundreds 
of pictures showing the growth of San Fran- 
cisco, rare lithographs of the early mining 
towns, curious old maps, the pi'ctorially told 
story of the building of the overland railroads, 
and of the progress of shipping from the first 
whalers to the steamship days. There arc many 
old manuscripts. letters and diaries of the gold 
rush days. Among these is General Sutter's 
"Diary", kept before the discovery of gold, 
the diary in which Sutter made no mention of 
that discovery, for «eil he knew what devas- 
tation it would bring to him. So he wrote 
of that event only this: "Marshall came today 
on important business." The Library contains 
more than five thousand volumes on Califor- 
nia history alone, while there are many hun- 
dred more on the Panama-Pacific Internation- 
al Exposition. 

Gradually it is becoming the depository for 
the records and relics that Californians value 
niost — those that tell the story of their own 
California. There are many collections of 
great general interest, one of the most recent- 
ly acquired being that which Mrs. Rachel J. 
Snyder is building in memory of her husband, 
Major Jacob R. Snyder, and her father, Cap- 
tain Franklin Scars, two Pioneers who cross- 
ed the Plains to California in 1845. In the 
Snj'der Collection are many very rare and 
valuable records and documents, and in a re- 
cent issue of the Society's Qutirtcrly. Major 
Snyder's Diary was printed along with a num- 
ber of these interesting Snyder letters. 

Who uses the library? Students and writ- 
ers and a great number of people, local resi- 
dents and travelers, who are "just interested 
in California history." And hardly a one 
comes who doesn't say, "In our attic is such 
and such an old lithograph or picture, which 
should be here," or "I have my Grandfather's 
diary of his trip to California, and I would 
like to bring it here to be kept carefully and 
safely for all time." 

So it is that the library of The Society of 
California Pioneers grows more and more in- 
teresting and more and more valuable to the 
citizens of California. 



How is it the homely girls always manage 
to marry the best providers? 

Before long the only women left with 
bobbed hair will be the old ladies. 

Don't you hate a man who holds your 
hand after you've had a shake? 



HOTEL EDWARD 

L. RIGAL, Prop, 

Rates: 

75c up per day $3.00 up per week 

Room with Bath $1.50 up 

Hot and Cold Water - Sleam Heat 

Mfhlock from F Street an<J D Street Cars 

16 Minutes from the Ferry 

3155 SCOTT STREET 

Cur l>jiiibard, near Greenwich 
'IW. WAiiiut an« S"i> I'Vaiicbie« 



Rheumatism Is Not Incurable 

Thousands Pernianently^rd^iev^^^^^^^^^ this^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 



SUFFERERS! Take new joy in living. 
There is a way to relieve your aches and 
pains; you do not have to go through life 
forever lame, bent and stiff. 

ANTI-UEIC has brought permanent re- 
lief to thousands of sufferers everywhere 
—often in as short a time as twenty 
days! This preparation is not a "magic 
cure." It is a scientific remedy prepared 
from roots and herbs especially for rheu- 
matic ills caused by excessive uric acid 
in the system. Slowly but surely ANTI- 
URIC drives out the poisons and impuri- 



ties— and with them go the aches and the 
pains. 

IF YOU HAVE sciatica, lumbago, in- 
flammatory rheumatism, kidney ailment 
or general uric acid condition, you owe it 
to yourself to give ANTI-URIC a fair 
trial. Sold by all good druggists on a 
money-back guarantee. 

ARTHRITIS 

If your case is Arthritis, write stating 
length and history of case to .ANTI-URIC 
CO., 32 Front Street, San Francisco. 



ARCADE PHARMACY 

FRED J. MATTHEWS 
Telephones: FRanklin 0406 — Frankün 0405 

1094 Bush Street, San Francisco 

Corner Leavenworth Street 



HOME OFFICE 



UNDAUNTED 

THE 

CALIFORNIA 

INSURANCE COMPANY 

of San Francbico 

315 MONTGOMERY STREET 

Telephone BUtter 3820 



J. 0. GRIFFITHS. Jr. President 

JAMES K. MOFFITT. Vice President 

A. N. UNDSAY. Vice President 

J. C. MORRISON, City Manager 



Accounting Service 



Auditing 



Svsleius 



F. W. FRENCH 

Public Accountant 

FEDERAL INCOME AND STATE 
FRANCHISE TAX CONSULTANT 

Telephone DOiigliu« 'il^i 

Room 1213 (laus Spreckels Ituildintf 

San Fi'uiu'iM-ii 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL AXN'UAL 



59 



Eureka Valley and Upper 
Market Street 

"Sunny Heart of San Francisco" 

The Eureka Valley-Upper Market Street 
district is one of the oldest of our city. It did 
not spring up over night to disappear again 
with nightfall. Its development dates back to 
the days of the Padres when they settled in 
the valley and established Mission Dolores. 
The sloping hills to the south and the north, 
with the majestic Twin Peaks in the west 
furnish a protecting barrier against the cold 
winds and fogs rising from the bay and rolling 
in through the Golden Gate. 

It was the chosen spot of the first pioneers 
and it is now the chosen spot for thousands 
and thousands of homeseekers. With the 
quickly growing population of the valley and 
hillsides, the busine^ district began to spread 
from Market and Church Streets to Market. 
Castro and Seventeenth and Eighteenth 
Streets. 

Today we f^nd in the "Sunny Heart of San 
Francisco" any number of substantial business 
establishments, like Wiley's Furniture Store 
on Market, Church and Fourteenth Streets; 
Visalia Stock Saddle Co., Engdahl Bros.. 
Meyer's Soda Works, and many others too 
numerous to mention. 

The Upper Market-Eureka Valley district 
is bound to develop into one of the most sub- 
stantial ones of the city, having better car 
connections than any other section of the city 
and being destined to furnish the cross-town 
outlet for the Golden Gate bridge. 
0- " 

Visalia Stock Saddle Co. 

2in-«lJS Market St. San Franclsoo. Cal. 

Thi< pioneer establishment was founded 
some 63 years ago, in 1870, in the htte, own 
Tf Visalia where it grew w„h the development 
° the district to its present form,dable s.e 
°„d volume. The founders of the V,sa. a 
Sttlc Saddle Co. were experts at the.r trade. 
CaWornia cattlemen take an inest.mable pr.de 
fnheiUorses and saddles and want only the 
m tneir .,i,„„te— very rarely worrymg 

•T' '"i J. SuaZ thTcase in the olden 
about the COS.. Su-^h w ^^^ ^^.^^ 

stretches of C»"»"" ,„ hacienda, dis- 

_gallop.n6 from ^'"'"^ ^„j ..„borate 

playing the.r f"'f'"°2y. The cowboy 

-■' """"con .^ on Page 67 



FRED MULl-E^ 

Pride of the Valley 
Market 

„UI.LEBBROS..Proprletora 

«t.' MK'ATS ONLY 
618 CASTBO ^JBE^^T 

Hiui l-Tiuu'iM.-'. 



DR. F. W. HERMS 

GERMAN DENTIST 

Formerly on the Staff of the Southern California State Hospital 
ALL DENTAL WORK AT REASONABLE PRICES 

4111 - 18th STREET, corner Castro 

Tel. Mission 1907 
Room 4 ^^^^^ ^ ^^ ^^ 1 to 5: 7 to S. Sundays by Appointment. 



When m San Francisco a; 



sk for Mt'.>er's ^inw ItkU.-y and Dr> Paie Gliiger AK- 



"The Better Mlxfre" 



Meyer's Soda Water Company 

• ^ ,*;, .. »f <!. Francis Dry Pale Ginger Ale and Orange Dry. Meyer's Dry 
Exeluswe Bottlera^o, St^^Fr^^.s D^y^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^.^ ^^^,,^^ 3^^^„^„, 

Fortuna Alkaline Water 
Distributors of Orange Kist, Lemon Kist. Chocolate Soldier. Golden Glow Lag.r Brew, 
uisinDutu b Syrups and Fountain Supplies 



2106 FIFTEENTH STREET 



Phone lINderhill 7531 



Distributors GLIDDEN Products 



ENGDAHL BROS. 

Wholesale and Retail 

PAINTS - WALL PAPER - BRUSHES 

Floor Wax, Ste«l Wool, Painters' SuppUes 
Phone MArket 5153 

2178-80 MARKET STREET 

San Francisco 



Petaluma Wholesale Egg 
and Poultry Company 

■'GOLDEN NEST BRAND" 
Phone MArket 6488 

2132 MARKET STREET 

San Francisco 



J 



WALTER WECK 

PLVMBING AND HEATLNG 

(Registered) 
GAS FITTING. GENERAL JOBBING 



omcp Phonp l^NderhUI 0810 
276 NOE STREET 

San Fniiifls*^'" 



Castro Coal Yard 

O J. ARFSTEIN, Prop. 

WOOD AND COAL EXPUESSIN« 

Handling Coal That Satisfies 

Phono Mission 3210 
Il4«mvnL'0 I'honf Mission THKt 

595>/> CASTRO STREET 

" Near N Inf teen til 
8uii Fnuii'l"»'" 



FINNISH BATHS 

M. A. FINNILA 

A Genuine Steam Bath for 50c 

FOÄ INDIES AND GENTLEMEN 

Open Daily from 10 « "' '" ^^p. m. 

Mondays 12 a. m. to 10 p. m. 

Sundays 8 to U ft- m, for men only 

Phono I'Ndprhlll 11381 

nih H* MARKET STREtrr 

4032 nth STREKr 

Sun Fnuu'l»*'" 



60 



CALIFORN-IA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



C. G. STRIPPEL 

WATCHMAKER AND JEWELER 

Phone MArket 5845 

419 CASTRO STREET 

San Francisco 



FLORENCE AUSTIN 
PENNANT SHOP 

Manufacturers of 

PENNANTS, SCHOOL EÄfBLEMS 

AND CAPS 

2330 MARKET STREET 

Formerly 143 Mason Street 

Phone HEmlock 5222 

San Francisco 



I, N. JENSEN 

WATCHMAKER AND JEWELEK 

3114 MARKET STREET 

Near Church Street 
San Francisco 



SERBIN'S 

CLOTHIERS AND 
HABERDASHERS 



445 CASTRO STREET 



Wulzen's Pharmacy 

— Prescription Druggists — 

Standard Remedies Household Drugs 

Toiletries, Stationery 

500 Castro Street 

Cor- 18th StrtH't, San Francisco 



Donelson's Shoe Shop 

D, Donelson. Prop. 
—Reliability Is Our Motto- 
Give Us a Trial 

242 Church Street 

Bet- Market and 15th St. 



DR. G. SILVEREK 

209 Church Street 

Near Market San Francisco 

Tel. HEmlock 4087 



JOS.H.QUADT 



PAINTERS and 
DECORATORS 



572 Castro St.. near 19th St. 

San Francisco Tel. IVHssIod 5162 



KEY GARAGE 

W. Mattem, Prop. 

2145 Market Street 
Tel. MArket 5086. San Francisco 



Credits Financed 



Tel. HEmlock 4868 



J. H. WILEY 




2080 — 2098 MARKET STREET 



COMPLETE LINE OF 

FURNITURE LINOLEUM 

CARPETS BEDDING 

RUGS DRAPES 

WEDGEWOOD STOVES 



CALIFORXIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL AN^^^aL 



fil 



1870 



63 years 




Genuine D. E. WALKER 
VISALIA SADDLES 

STETSON HATS 
JUSTIN BOOTS 

diiftdiii/ I'rtc 

VisaUa Stock Saddle Co. 

2117-2123 Market St.. S. F. 



MARSHALL'S 
West Portal Pharmacy 

Phone MOlltro9(^ U\>% 

31 WEST PORTAL AVENUE 

San Francisco 



SUNNYSIDE 
BATTERY SHOP 

D. CARLSON. Prop. 
-WILLARD BATTERY SERVICE- 
TIRE AND TUBE REPAIRS 
Phone RAndolph 2036 

44 MONTEREY BOULEVARD 

Corner Monterey Blvd & San Jose Ave 
Smi Franrlsfo 



L. P. WILLIAMS 

SUNNYSIDE COAL AND FEED 

Phon.^ KAndolph 6469 

lt.*ld.-n<-.^ DElaware 3216 

36 MONTEREY BOULEVARD 



Glen Park Cleaners 

CLEANING -:- DYEING 

W« operate our own ck-aning r 

Pli.mi' ItAiuIolph 1l»13 
Ätti2 DIAMOND STRKI';T 



SHRUBS 



CARL BERNKNECHT, Prop. 

PLANTS 



FERTILIZER 



"EXPERT LANDSCAPE WORK" 
Prices Most Reasonable 

924 Taraval Street LOckhaven 2476 

San Francisco 



WEINSTEIN CO., Inc. 

Always Sell for Less 

DEPARTMENT STORE 

1041 MARKET STREET 

Between 6th and 7th 



WHEN VISITING SAN FRANCISCO HAVE 

"DAN'S AUTO PAINT SHOP" 

Body and Fender Work — Upholstering 

Make the necessary repairs for your trip back home. — 24 Hour Service 
All Work Guaranteed 

241 Tenth Street, San Francisco 

Phone: UNderhill 7363 



Ellis Coffee & Sandwich Shop 

ERNE ZEITER 

SODA FOUNTAIN 



124 ELLIS STREET 

San Francisco 



Jl 



Shun Yuen King & Co. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE 

Importers of 
RICE, TEA AND FIRECRACKERS 

849 Grant Avenue, San Francisco 



62 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



UNITING THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY 

AREA BY TWO MAMMOTH 

BRIDGE PROJECTS 

By R. B. KoEBER, Sm Framiu-a Chamber of Commerce. 




HE Sail Francisco Bay Area compris- 
ing the San Francisco Peninsula, the 
East Bay and North Bay areas is 
essentially one economic unit com- 
. , . prising 1.633,229 people and con- 
taining a wide range of activity, living condi- 
tions, climate and diversified opportunity. 

Nature performed a mighty handiwork in 
the San Francisco Bay Area in respect to the 
natural opportunity for an integrated develop- 
ment including cultural, industrial and com- 
mercial, but it left to man numerous unpre- 
cedented opportunities to test his vision, in- 
genuity and courage. 

The littoral of the Bay encompasses a water 
area of 450 square miles. The surrounding 
terrain slopes gently upward from the Bay, 
breaking into rolling hills and mountains in 
the background thus providing ideal conditions 
for homes, workshops, educational institutions 
and recreational facilities. 

The San Francisco Bay Area is also the hub 
of a vast Immediate trade territory as large as 
the entire group of New England states, and 
one and one-half times the size of New York 
state. The resources of this area are widely 
diversified and represent over 55 per cent of 
California's total. 

San Francisco, depicted as one of the few 
"skyline" cities of the nation, is a city of su- 
preme and exotic beauty situated on the slopes 
of numerous rolling hills on the tip of a beau- 
tiful Peninsula encompassed in three directions 
by the lovely waters of San Francisco Bay, 
the Golden Gate and the Pacific Ocean. 

This fascinating setting is to become the 
center of a great pendant with one chain lead- 
ing eastward over San Francisco Bay and an- 
other northward high above the Golden C^atc. 
thus tying together with San Francisco the 
shores and uplands of the attractive and in- 
dustrious East Bay area in one direction and 
the gorgeous virgin slopes of Marin County 
and the Redwood Empire In the other. 

Here, about to be unfolded, arc two mam- 
moth bridge projects, the San Francisco-Oak- 
land Bay Bridge connecting San Francisco and 
Alameda County will require the greatest 
amount of funds that have ever been expended 
in any single structure, and with one of the 
foundations of this structure the deepest that 
has ever been attempted by man. The Gold- 
en Gate Bridge will require one of the longest 
single spans ever undertaken by man. The 
aggregate expenditures for these two bridge 
projects will amount to more than $10f},- 
000,000. 

San Franchi 0-0 (d- land liny Uri/li/f 
The San Francisco-Oakland Hay Bridyc has 
been brought to it» present status as a result 
of imtructions from the President of the 
United Stat« and the Govern(»r of the State 
of California to a commission designated as 



the Hoover-Young San Francisco Bay Bridge 
Commission, which convened in Sacramento, 
California, on October 7. 1929. 

The problem before this Commission was to 
endeavor to work out a solution of the State 
and interurban traffic needs between the coun- 
ties of San Francisco and Alameda across San 
Francisco Bay, reconciling this with the needs 
of national defense and national interest of 
navigation. For many years discussion to pro- 
vide adequate means of transportation other 
than ferry between San Francisco and Ala- 
meda County has been under way. A definite 
conclusion was impossible because of the lack 
of sufficient information as to found.ition con- 
ditions as well as complete data as to the traf- 
fic situation. 

The Hoover- Y'oung Commission, with the 
cooperation of the Department of Public 
Works of the State of California, made an en- 
gineering, traffic and economic study which 
was done under the supen,'ision of the State 
Highway Engineer and his engineering staff. 
The final choice of the best location nar- 
rowed down to a route from Rincon Hill (in 
San Francisco) to Yerba Buena Island thence 
paralleling the present Key Route Mole In 
Oakland. This location was found to be prac- 
tical from an engineering standpoint and econ- 
omically feasible under a proper fiscal plan 
and adequately serving the needs of transbay 
travel. 

The total length of the bridge from end to 
end of approaches is approximately seven and 
one-half miles. The total length of navigable 
water spanned Is approximately 12,000 feet. 
The bridge runs from Rincon Hill In San 
Francisco over what is known as the West 
Channel of San Francisco Bay to Yerba Bu- 
ena Island; thence, over the East Channel to a 
location just north of the Key Route mole. 

The structure over the West Channel will 
be two simple suspension bridges, with a cen- 
tral anchorage approximately in the middle of 
the Channel. The spans of the center sus- 
pension will be 2400 feet each and the side 
spans 1200 feet each. Vertical clearance for 
the two central spans will be 214 feet above 
high water, with 180 feet vertical clearance 
at the shore lines. The structure east of the 
Island will be composed of one 1400 foot 
span, cantilever. \nth a long series of 500 and 
.300 foot spans from the Island to the shore. 
The structure will be double-decked with six 
lanes of automobile traflic on the upper deck 
and three track lanes for trucks and stages on 
the lower deck, with two Interurban electric 
line tr.-icks. 

The foundations of this structure are the 
deepest that have ever been attempted, it being 
necessary to sink one pier at least 250 feet be- 
low water, with several others ranging from 
100 to 180 feci. 



The structure Is being built under an m- 
come bond financing scheme and will be a toll 
bridge. No assessment will be made on tax- 
able property for the construction of this 
bridge. It Is estimated that traffic is sufficient 
to completely amortize the bonds In from 22 
to 25 years, after which It will be a free 
bridge. 

The present plans Indicate that January 
1, 1937 will see it completed, thus requiring 
approximately four years for completion. 

As a point of interest, this bridge spans the 
widest expanse of navigable water it has ever 
been attempted to bridge, and involves the ex- 
penditure of the greatest amount of funds that 
have ever been expended in any single struc- 
ture. The cost is estimated between $75,000,- 
000 and $80,000.000. 

As an indication of the expected traffic, the 
actual figures as reported by the Bridge Com- 
mission for 1929 and the estimate for 1940 
are as follows; 
Kind^ of traffic 1929 1940 

Vehicle traffic 4.490,513 10,824,000 

Automobile passenger 

traffic 10,174.028 22,081,000 

Passenger traffic 35,923.855 36,759.000 

Total passenger 

traffic 46,097,883 58,840.000 

The construction of the San Francisco- 
Oakland Bay Bridge will put 6000 men to 
work directly on the structure, and at least 
2000 more men in the shops and mills. The 
bridge will require 170,000 tons of structural 
steel ; 20.000 tons of reinforcing steel ; 200,- 
000 gallons of paint; 30,000,000 to 40,000.- 
000 board feet of lumber; 1.000,000 barrels of 
cement, and 1.000,000 cubic yards of sand and 
gravel, besides other miscellaneous equipment 
and supplies. 

The average time saved per trip over the 
bridge for vehicle traffic will be about twenty- 
five to thirty minutes and for passenger traffic 
between ten and fifteen minutes. 

It has been computed that the public will 
save in time-value during the twenty years 
following the opening of the bridge in 1937 
more than they will spend for tolls during 
that same period ; assuming the time worth an 
average of fifty cents per hour. 

G'ihiirn Gnle Bridge 
The decision to make the Golden Gate 
Bridge a toll bridge built by the State through 
the agency of the Bridge District necessitated 
the creation of the "Golden Gate Bridge and 
Highway District" under the Bridge Act of 
the State of California. This district as fin- 
ally formed includes the counties of San 
Francisco, Marin. Sonoma, Del Norte and 
part of Mendocino. 

The engineering, traffic, and economic 
studies have been completed under the direc- 
tion of the Board of Directors of this Dis- 
trict. 

Plans call for a bridge whose total length 
from bridge head to bridge head is 6.400 feet 
hut from portal to portal 8,943 feel. The es- 
timated cost of the completion of this struc- 
ture and Its approaches amounts to $32,815,* 
llOO. The location of the course ol the bridge 



C.\LIFORXU JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNU.'VL 



63 



^^"is slightly northwest Ironi Kort Point on 
p üAn Francisco shore to Lime Point on the 
'^'«nn County shore. 

\ "H h **^'"^' **'^^'""^'^ s'^orc to shore, i. e. the 
' ,!" ^^^'■"'^s the Coiden CJa.e along the cen- 
" '"'e of the bridge, is 5J57 leet. The <ii.s- 

52"? "'" *''*^ ^^^"" ^^'""^ »« "«rth pitr is 
. ^*^ ^"<1 from the S.in Francisco shore to 
. ' '""^'^ P'*^'- 's !.Ht5 feet. 'I'he main span 
" , " «'"" to center of piers is 4 200 feet. 
^ '«"gest ever un.iertnken. The maximum 
^^„ of the uatcr through the Colden Catc 
" ^'^ ^'"^ ='t the center of the channel. 

*he clearance height is 210 feet at the 
P"---^. increasing to 220 leet at the center 
measured from the mean higher high u-ater 
and under maNimnm detlecrinn. The eleva- 
tion of the bridge floor at the piers is 242 feet 
" I'lches above mean higher high water. 

l^ie most prominent features of the Gold- 
en Gate bridge arc the two great steel towers 
carrying the cables which support the struc- 
ture. These towers will be 700 feet high 
measured from the tops of the pier, and 809 
feet 7 inches from the bed of the bay on the 
ban Francisco side. 

There will be two cables for the bridge, 
resting on cast steel saddles at the tops of the 
towers and anchored on shore. Each cable 
will be 7.700 feet long and 36''-. inches in 
diameter and unll contain approximately 
27.5Ü0 steel wires of 0.196 inch in diameter 
laid parallel to each other and strung from 
anchor to anchor in one continuous operation 
then wrapped with galvanized steel wire and 



compacted by means of a special device for 
that purpose. 

From center to center between the two 
cables is 90 feet. A 60-foot roadway for six- 
lanes of traffic and t« o 1 0-foot «alks are pro- 
vided. 

The capacity of the bridge with six lanes 
for traoc amounts to 259,20(1 automobiles for 
24-hour day. 

As an indication of the actual traffic for 
the u-ar mdirm jntir 1 JO ,,|,d rhi- fstimatod 



DINE AND DANCE 

at the 

Palais Royal 
CAFE 

ULISSE CAIATI. Prop. 

Luncheons 60c Dinners $1.00 

Private Booths and Biuiqupt Halls 
NO COVER CHARGE 

Telephone MOntrose 10003 

2656 Great Highway 

Near Fleishhacker Pool 
San Francisco 

RESERVATIONS for Baoquets. Card 
Parties, Anniversaries and other Cele- 
brations can be made any time. 

Guaranteed best dinner and excellent 

service. 



S. Silberberg 




MERCHANT 
TAILOR 



364 Bush St. 

San Francisco 
California 



Have your clothes 
made by a tailor who 
will guarantee per- 
fect fit and satisfac- 
tion. The finest do- 
mestic and imported 
goods to select from. 



J. H. KRUSE 

Lumber, Hardware, Planing Mill 

Lime, Cement and Plaster, Paints, Oils 
and Glass 

Folsom and »Sd St., San Francisco 



Orpheum Garage 

LEE S. DOLSON, Proprietor 

351-365 O'FARRELL STREET 

Between Taylor and Mason Streets 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



Our Central Location Offers Special Advantages to Tourists and 
Hotel Guests, for Temporary Storage mid Parking. During the 
Show Leave Your Car With Us. This Will Prevent Danger of 
Theft of Car or Contents. 



WASHING AND POLISHING DAY AND NIGHT 

Phone TUxedo 9511 



64 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



San Francisco Now a Billion Dollar 
Corporation 



Our Hetch Hetchy Water System 
And Its Builder 



The magnitude of a billion dol- 
lar corporation is not so easily com- 
prehended by the man in the 
street, for the simple reason that 
there are so few of them. How- 
ever, vision yourself walking into 
one of them, and you will find tliat 
its legal department occupies the 
choicest suites, and the battery of 
attorneys represented at any trial 
in which the corporation may be a 
party is truly awe-inspiring, to say 
the least. 

The city and countj' of San 
Francisco has long since passed 
the billion dollar stage, the grand 
total for the fiscal year of 1932- 
1933 being almost one and one- 
half billion dollars; and all of its 
legal affairs are under the direct 
supervision of its city attorney, 
who must of necessity initiate and 
pass upon every action taken by 
the city in the course of its civic 
growth. 

City Attorney John J. O'Toolc 
was first elected to that respon- 
sible position in 1925, and has con- 
tinually succeeded himself since 
that time. During the transition 
from the mayoralty form of gov- 
ernment and the adaptation of the 
new charter, there were tremen- 
dous demands made upon his time 
and legal knowledge ; but so well 
did he steer the "Golden Ship" 
that there has never been a legal 
tangle for him or anyone else to 
untangle. 

Mr. O'Toole comes from pio- 
neer stock on both the maternal 
and paternal sides of his family. 
Grandfather Patrick Fenton was 
a '49er, who was born in the old 
Emerald Isle, and came here from 
South America. He engaged in 
the bakery business in San Fran- 
cisco for a time, but later moved 
to Santa Clara Valley. 

The elder William O'Tnole 
missed being a '49er by only three 
years, coming here from Canada in 
1852, where he was born. He 
first located at Gilroy, but in 1858 
settled on a farm in the Santa 
Clara Valley. His wife (Mary 
Fenton) was a native daughter, 
having been born in San Francisco 
in 1850. 

It was on the old family home- 
stead near San Jose that the pres- 
ent City Attorney John J. 
O'Toole first saw the light of day 
—on September 28. 1872. He 
went from the San Jose piibhV 
school» to Santa Clara ColIcBe, 
from which inititution he grad- 



uated with honors in 1890. He 
pursued his law studies under the 
tutelage of James H. Campbell in 
San Jose, and in Jaruiary, 1894, 
passed the state bar examination. 

Coming to San Francisco he en- 
tered law partnership with Frank 
McGlynn, but later on we find 
young O'Toole going it alone. So 




JOHN .i. O'TOOLE 



successful was he in his practice 
that his reputation soon became 
city-wide. His appointment as a 
member of the civil service com- 
mission followed in due course of 
time, and he continued to serve 
the commission until his election 
to the office of City Attorney in 
1925. 

Painstaking and progressive Jn 
thought and action, Mr. O'Toole 
is nationally known as one of the 
most capable of city attorneys. It 
was due to his initiative and un- 
ceasing efforts that the S. F.-Oak- 
land bridge is now in the course of 
construction. He made many trips 
to our national capital in further- 
ance of that public enterprise, and 
is was not long before the State 
of California saw fit to take over 
the project. 

On January 23, 1904, Mr. 
O'Toole was married to Miss 
Christine Regan, a native San 
Franciscan and daughter of James 
and Mary (Morrison) Regan, a 
direct descenilant of the pioneers 
of 1849. 

Mr. O'Toole is an active 
member of the Native Sons of the 
CTohlen West, and he was one of 
the organizers of the Knights of 
Columbus. He is also a member 
nf the Elks Lodge and Olympic 
Club. In addition to public serv- 
ice, Ilis other hnbhy iN gardening, 
:uid when not actively eiinaged in 
the former he is sure to he found 
among his flowers. 



Much has been said and written 
about Mr. M. M. O'Shaughnessy, 
City Engineer and builder of our 
Hetch Hetchy Water System. 

Mr. O'Shaughnessy is a man as 
wc seldom find them. He is one of 
those sturdy emigrants that have 
come from the old world and 
brought to this new world a for- 
tune of knowledge, ability and en- 
ergy that has done more for the 
marvelous development of this 
country than all the riches of the 
world in gold and silver could 
have accomplished. 

Mr. O'Shaughnessy is a native 
of Ireland and never has he for- 
gotten the land of his birth nor 
could he deny it. The resistless 
Irish wit would crop out at the 
most unexpected moment turning 
the often quite serious situation in- 
to a pleasant conference. He also 
can be rather vitriolic. 

Holding a very important posi- 
tion in the public commonwealth 
and being of a determined charac- 
ter he was bound to meet with op- 
position to his plans and work. 
There are always those who can 
not sec any further than their toe 
line. They will harrass and cm- 
barass a man able to vision the fu- 
ture and who is courageous enough 
to insist on doing things in a big 
way. 

When the construction of the 
Hetch Hetchy Water System was 
under consideration Mr. 
O'Shaughnessy was sent for. He 
was offered the position as City 
Engineer at a nominal salary with 
the proviso that he would be at 
liberty to accept calls from neigh- 
boring communities to act in an 
advisory or consulting capacity. At 
(hat time Mr. O'Shaughnessy was 
engaged in Southern California to 
study the w.iter supply for the fast 
growing City of San Diego which 
was being rapidly built up and Im- 
proved by the Spreckels millions. 

O'Shaughnessy accepted the call. 
He set to work at once. After an 
intensive study he submitted his 
findings to the city officials. Out- 
standing engineers, men of nation- 
al reputation were called into con- 
ference. The plans as outlined by 
Mr. O'Shaughnessy were finally 
adopted. The plans provided for 
bringiuK the waters of the Sierras 
K. San Francisco by tumu-line the 
intervening mountains and coast 
lidgcii so it could How into the 



Spring Valley reservoirs by grav- 
ity, thereby saving expensive pump- 
ing plans and upkeep. 

The first bonds for the building 
of Hetch Hetchy were voted by 
our people and the actual work on 
the system was started after the 
pennit had been granted by the 
Department of the Interior to en- 
ter the government lands and dam 
the waters of the Sierras. The al- 
most inacccssable site for the reser- 
voirs selected and favored by the 
former Mayor James D. Phelan 
made it necessary to build a rail- 
road to the dam site so the ma- 
terial could be transported up the 
mountains. Planing mills were 
erected and the required lumber 
was cut and prepared in the Camp 
Mather district to be transported 
to tlie Lake Eleanor and the 
O'Shaughnessy Dam Site. It was 
slow and tedious work, taking 
many years before any real prog- 
ress became visible to the casual 
observer. The opposition started 
its cry about delays and unneces- 
sary expenditures. They wanted 
the work rushed and completed In 
a few years time — no matter how. 
But O'Shaughnessy stuck to his 
plans and his job and now he sees 
it practically completed. 

Lake Eleanor dam and the 
O'Shaughnessy dam with its mod- 
ern power plant stand as an ever- 
lasting monument to its builder, 
Mr. M. M. O'Shaughnessy. 

The tunnel work is rapidly 
nearing completion so that the 
waters of the Hetch Hetchy will 
be flowing in our water mains at 
the time specified by the engineer 
who planned and executed this 
marvelous undertaking. And this 
will be done with a saving of near- 
ly $750,000 over the figures sub- 
mitted by private contractors a 
short lime ago after the last bond 
issue of ?6 (1011,000 had been voted. 
Every possible effort was made to 
swing the finishing job of the tun- 
nel work to some private contract- 
or although O'Shaughncssy's (De- 
partment of Works) estimate was 
a half million dollars lower than 
the lowest private biilder. .\n in- 
tensive study of the figures was 
made by the Controller's office and 
the outcome was that the Hi\») 
touches of the elaborate Hetch 
Hflchy system will be finidted un- 
der the uiiidjince of the man who 
plaimcd and practically executed it. 
Mr. M. M. O'Shauthnvssy. 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL AXXUAL 



65 



Picturesque PAS ADENA 



THE CROWN OF THE VALLEY 



By 

WM. DUNKERLEY. Secretary and 

Manager 

Chamber of Commerce and Civic 

Association of Pasadena 




HEN Dnn Caspar dc Pnrtnla ami his 
band of Spanish explorers passed 
north in 1770, through the region 
now known as Southern California, 
r they camped for a night near an In- 

dian village in the foothills, overlooking a fer- 
tile valley. In the mornin^; they awoke to view 
a spectacle of mountains anil flowering valleys 
that brought forth exclamations of amazement 
and delight. The poetic Spaniards, deeply im- 
pressed, christened the spot "La Gran Sabin- 
alla de San Pasqual," or "Great Altar Cloth 
of Holy Easter." The spot was known as San 
Pasqual thereafter for more than a century. 

One hundred and four years aft- 
er the arrival of the Spaniard^ 
Pasadena was founded, being cho^ 
en as the most beautiful spot in n 
land of sunshine and flowers. 

For about a year the settlement 
was known as the Indiana Coloiu 
by those who settled it. but on 
April 22, 1875, the name "Pa^a ^ 
dcna" was formally adopted, ;i 
word derived from the Cliippeua 
Indian dialect, meaning "Crown i-r 
the Valley." It was chosen, nm 
only because it ilescribed the hi; ,i 
tion of the village overlouking th. 
valley, but also because it u;i- 
"beautiful, musical and euphori , 
ious." Thousands of persons frou! 
all parts of the United States— 
from all sections of the globe, u- 
fact— have found here an idi-al 
place in which to live or to spen,' 
a vacation. 

In 1880, Pasadena was the ImuH 
of 391 persons; in 18^)0. it hmi 
4SS"' residents; in 19D0. the pop.. 
Ution was 9117; in 1910, it wa- 
30^91- in 1920, it had increaset' 
to 45.3'54. and 1930. 76,086. 

Pasadena's attractiveness is based 
upon several factors. One is th. 
climate. It is a climate that per 
,„its flowers to bloom and grass to 
be green the year around. Summer 

,1 winter, the days are delightful, the mghts 

^oll Weather Bureau statistics for 47 years 

"^hovv that January has an average tempera- 

*" of 55 degrees. July an average of 71, a 

variation of only 16 degrees between the cold- 

t and warmest months. The average year 

r 12 days when the tlH-rmonietcr registers 

bovc'90, and 13 days when it drops below 40. 

" Winter in Pasadena is like spring in most 

of t'l^' country. It Is the season when 

T rain» fonie, when the grass is greenest and 

[he floWL-rs look their loveliest. Snow and ice 

„iikiiown, unle.ss one cares to seek them 

i„ the mountains, an hour from Pasadena by 

electric car or motor. Althoußh winter is the 



su-called rainy season, the average year has 
only 1 1 days without sunshine at some time, 
nidy 1 5 days when more than a quarter of an 
inch of rain falls and 260 days during which 
the sun shines from morning until night. 
There is virtually no rain from June to Sep- 
tember. Nine nights out of ten. you will sleep 
under a blanket. 

Towering above the city on the north urej 
the lofty mountains, enthralling, mystifying, 
inspiring. Along the western boundary extend- 
ing from the mountains to the southern limit; 
nf the city, is a great natural gorge, known a: 




CITY HALL, PASADENA 



the Arroyo Scco. its sides dotted with tile- 
roofed villas and its bed utilized as a city park 
of over nine hundred acres. To the south and 
cast is Southern California's great citrus do- 
main. On the gently-sloping terrain of this 
picturesque site, amid a profusion of tropical 
and semi-tropical trees. Pasadena has been 
built. It is literally in the heart of what is 
generally reganled as the world's greatest all- 
year playground. Here one finds an array nf 
scenery and diversity of attractions unexcelled 
any place on ilu- globe. 

I'.leven miles a« ay is the downtown center 
of the largest city in Western America, the 
motion picture capital of the world, with sev- 



eral wide highways and more than a hunilied 
daily intcrurban trains provuling rapid ingress 
and egrecs. 

There are a score or more seaside resorts 
within less than two hours of Pasadena by in- 
terurban train or motor car. You may go fish- 
ing, swimming, yachting, motor boating or 
picnicking, or perhaps you would prefer the 
desolation and grandeur of the desert, which 
is within a few hours' ride. Many old Spanish 
missions are in close proximity, too. 

There are seven golf courses in or adjacent 
to Pasadena and 35 others within the borders 
of Los Angeles County. Pasadena's 
.iiunicipal golf course of 18 holes, 
with nine additional nearing coir.- 
ple'.ion, has g:-.-ir.s greens and fair- 
V. ays and ranks with the finest in 
;lie country. There are also tennis 
c^nirts, polo field and bridle paths. 
P.isadena is prima ri!y a city of 
hnme.. Us reputation for beauty 
rests largely upon its residences, its 
lurcnnial gardens and its broad, 
tree-lined thoroughfares. Archi- 
tects, artisans and home owners 
h:ive collaborated to create here 
homes that are both practical and 
artistic. How well they have suc- 
ceeded may be best judged from 
:he statement of globe-trotters that 
i^radcna compares in setting and 
environment with the seaboard 
a-L-asof the Mediterranean and the 
lull towns of Italy, Spain and 
Southern France. In keeping « ith 
ihe st.'.ndanl set by ihe homes are 
;Ik- schools, churches, libraries, 
.iLi. ks. public buildings and busncss 
liniisc.;. 

KJuc.r.icnal facilities in Pas.v 
.IcEia are exceptionally fine. 'I he 
public school sy:.tem comprises ele- 
I .Liitary, junior and senior high 
SL-Iiools and a junior college. All 
<.t these are housed in modern 
aichitecurally-beautiful structures. 
The physical plant of the junior 
college is rated among the best on the Pacific 
Coast. There are seventeen buildings on the 



campus of forty acres. 

Methods of instruction in the public schools, 
while strong in fundanientals, are resi>onsive to 
every movement that marks a genuine advance 
in the field of education. 

Apart from the public schools there ;trc 
eighteen private, parochial and denominational 
schools in Pasadena. The private schools in- 
chi.le hotli boarding and day schools for boys 
;uul girls of all ages. Mmy of them have «on 
much more than local recognition. 



h6 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



CHINESE CONTRIBUTIONS TO 
CALIFORNIA 

By Sha Chih-Pei. EMir.r, Chl xc S.M Yat Fu 




1 IGHTY YEARS ago my elders diil 
not know the United States of 
America, as most Americans did not 
know China. Aside from gcograiihic 
^^^ isolation by the Pacific Ocean, the 
Chi;;^ by tradition, if not by nature, are not 
a migrating people. 

In China, the people arc not ruled by law 
but by a code of morals laid down by her 
sages, which was given vitality and bmcling 
force even beyond that of written la«s. 1 he 
filial piety-honor, obey, and love thy father 
and mother-to the Chinese is one of then- 
highest moral laws. 

The predominating institution of China is 
the family. The individual is not regarded, as 
he is in America, as the unit of society. But 
he is the indivisable part of his family, or of 
his enlarged family which was then known 
as the Chinese Empire. 

For the continuity of the family. Confucius 
reminded his people that "When parents are 
alive, do not travel afar." On top of th.s 
according to the Chinese law and custom, for 
one to leave his country of his own free will 
is almost regarded as the act of expatriation, 
and the act of expatriation was regarded al- 
most as treason. 

Moreover, the Chinese by nature arc a very 
contented people. They believe that the value 
of life is life itself. There is no other en- 
joyment higher than the enjoyment of moral 
experience and there is no other enjoyment 
better than the enjoyment of human relation- 
ship. Thus the Chinese, through respect to 
the old. and veneration of the continuity of 
the family are contented with their allotted 
lots. Therefore they do not trouble them- 
selves to go abroad to seek material gain. 

The news of the discovery of gold in the 
Sacramento Valley in January, IH4S. reached 
Hong-Kong during that Spring. Although 
the enticement of the gold rush, the reports 
of the high wages paid tn the laborers In Cali- 
fornia gradually spread among the Chinese 
populace about Canton, true to the Chinese 
tradition and habit, the Chinese \\erc still re- 
luctant to leave their native land. 

But the Taiping rebellion started m 
Kwangtung Province in the summer of ISSO. 
The terror of war and the accompanying 
famine paralyzed all industry and trade. The 
farming people in Southwestern China were 
therefore driven to the seacoast. Consequently 
the scarcity of labor in California and the 
facilities uffered by the foreign vessels at I long 
Konii finally drew the attention of the vaga- 
bonding multitude to ihr little kniuMi w.mIcI. 
IJy the end of 1H51 there were already ^^i.UOU 
Chinese in your great State. 

In order to iiihurc the protection of new 
iinniii£raiit* your great Federal ( Juvcrnment 
enaited the act of July 27, 1H6«, »tatinii; 



lülICU lilt ■!■. I ■'• J"'7 "' • ' ■" 

"Wliirciis, llic iiiiin ul expaiii^tiuii i& a 



natural and inherent right of all people, indis- 
pensable to the enjoyment of the rights of life, 
liberty and the pursuit of happiness; and 
whereas, in the recognition of this principle 
this Government ha.s freely received emigrants 
from all nations and invested them with the 
rights of citizenship; and whereas it is claim- 
ed that such American citizens, with their 
descendants, are subjects of foreign states, 
owing allegiance to the Governments thereof ; 
and whereas it is necessary to the maintenance 
„f public peace that this claim of foreign al- 
legiance should be promptly and finally dis- 
avowed ; therefore, any declaration, instruc- 
tion, ooinion, order, or decision of any officer 
of the United States which denies, restricts, 
impairs or questions the right of expatriation, 
is declared inconsistent with the fundamental 
principles of the Republic." 

Notwithstanding the established law of 
China, my country entered into a new treaty 
with the United States of America on July 
2S, 1868, providing that: 

"The United States of America and the 
Emperor of China cordially recognize the in- 
herent and inalienable right of man to change 
his home and allegiance, and also the mutual 
advantage of the free migration and emigra- 
tion of their citizens and subjects respectively, 
from the one country to the other, for the 
purpose of curiosity, of trade, or as permanent 
residents. 

I came to California in the early summer 
of \9n from the Atlantic Coast where I spent 
,ny first four years in America. The fact that 
a fast train can cross the American continent 
in such a short space of time of four days 
made me recall at once the remote position of 
California and her physical features of the 
pioneer days. The Pacific Ocean gives Cali- 
fornia no connecting strait with the Atlantic. 
The deep sea voyage which linked the extent 
of the t«o continents was the longest and 
most difficult journey which could he ex- 
pc-rienced. In those days, ready-made clothes 
and other provisions, and even houses shipped 
in frame, could be obtained In Hong Kong 
anil Honolulu quicker than from the hasten. 
United States. 

'I'he extreme ease of the Iron Horse In as- 
cending high mountain ranges and surmount- 
ing desert lands makes the present traveler 
forget the inviting and inhospitable physical 
features of California which were encountered 
by the early wayfarers. The overland route 
u-is even more hazardous and diflicult than 
the deep sea. The great tract of land in the 
tar mid-west was then settled by lew and inv 
ercd by scanty vegetation. The sunmiit of the 
Rocky Mountains which is always arid and 
which was frequented by the Arctic wind in 
the winter gave the early adventurers a great 
.!,.al of hardship. (Jver the Rocky Mountains 
a treat dcbcrl ua^ m uaitiiii;. 'lo lop llitm 



an, the snow caps of the Sierra Nevada 
Mountains, now so beautiful to view througn 
the windows of a comfortable tram, were al- 
most impassible by the weary immigrants from 
the East. , 

In order to attract settlers; to develop the 
rich potentialities of California, a continental 
railway was the first urgent necessity, without 
which all other enterprises would remain only 
as possibilities of the future. 

When traveling In California. I, for one, 
never fail to recognize the marvelous achieve- 
ments of the Californians within such a short 
space of time. But a second thought comes, 
that everv achievement I see in California tes- 
tifies to the fact that the work of my prede- 
cessors has been largely instrumental in bring- 
ing about these results. 

The great contribution of the Chinese to 
California was their honest and reliable labor 
which no other people could offer. And the 
kind of work they did, such as railway con- 
struction, reclamation of waste land, minmg, 
and domestic service, was the type which no 
white people contemplated doing. 

As to the construction of the Central Pa- 
cific Railway from San Francisco to Ogden. 
eighty per cent, or four-fifths of it. was done 
by the Chinese. White labor was tried first. 
Even such high wages as forty-five dollars a 
month and board could not keep them work- 
ing First of all. there was not enough white 
labor then In California. The railway com- 
pany advertised extensively for help, but they 
could not get seven or eight hundred white 
laborers at one time. Among those who work- 
ed in the railway, some worked only a few 
days. Some did not work at all, and some 
imbibed too much liquor after pay-day. Sec- 
ondly, because most of the white immigrants 
who overcame great geographical difficulties 
and reached the land of gold would rather 
prefer to do the easier work at better pay. So 
Chinese labor did not only fill the demand of 
the day but their reliability and steadiness and 
their aptitude and capacity for hard work 
were indispens.ible to the precocity of Cili- 

fornia. 

The Chinese laborers received thirty-one 
dollars a month for their work, without board, 
a pay almost half as much as that offered to 
their white brothers. It. therefore, can be con- 
cluded that without the Chinese labor, the 
Transcontinental Railway could not be built 
so cheaply and quickly, an.l consequently^ all 
other possibilities and developments in Cali- 
fornia would have been long delayed. 

From the time of the completion of that 
railway onward, numerous while persons 
could come to California on such easy steps to 
establish their permanent domicile and to dis- 
place the Chinese, or to cngaßr in ne« hne> 
of industry. 

Ol equ.il unpn.ia.Ke » .i. it th«t the Chi 
ncse labor in the mino gtratly increased the 
wealth of California. It inuM be rcmembrre.1 
that mining of all kinds in California has b«n 
very hazardous, Still more impür.ant coiv 
tributlons were that (he Chines* worked most 
(Cuiitinucd wi paff 1*7 > 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



67 



Chinese Contributions 
to California 

(Continued from Page 66) 

y 'II the worn-out mines. Wlien they found 
new diggings that were worth the white im- 
""erants' attention they were driven away to 
"id new ones. 

Incidentally, all Chinese workers in the 
mines were later obliged to pay the so-called 
mining tax, and buy water at thirty cents piT 
man a day. Many counties paid their entire 
•^penses from these sources. Evidence exists 
at some county treasuries were virtually 
bankrupt after they tried to exclude the Chi- 
nese from the mines. 

California, a vast territory almost as large 
as France, was partly covered by high tides 
and was grown up with weeds, being consid- 
ered waste land. Thousands of Chinese were 
engaged to work under unhealthy and hard 
conditions. They opened up thousands of 
acres of land which would have lain waste 
otherwise. In railroad construction and land 
reclamation, according to the most conserva- 
tive official report, one hundred thousand Chi- 
nese added two hundred and eighty million 
and seven hundred thousand dollars wealth 
to the State of California. And this added 
wealth was owned, held, and enjoyed by the 
white men. 

In the days when few white immigrants 
would condescend to menial services, the Chi- 
nese supplied the needs nf m.-uiy homes as 



WINGETT 

CHEMICAL 

COMPANY 

ny^CORPO RATED 

In business in San Jose since 1926 

Having outgrown our former place 

of bußineaa we are now 

located at 

824 THE ALAMEDA 

8AN JOSE, CAL. 



h 



Ä 



r 



Com|t«t«nt DiaKnoHticliLH and 
Nunm ill charg» 

Our Chemical Formulas have been 

lued Kuccetiufully in reutoring 

Health to humanity for 

over forty year» 



cooks and laundrymcn. Thus the Chinese 
services were indispensable to the decent liv- 
ing of many families, especially in the country 
where «■htte women domestics would not go. 

On their return, the Chinese brought back 
all kinds of American goods to China. No 
American firm could send better advertising 
agents than the returning Chinese. 

Columbus discovered America by mistake. 
Yet through this mistake, peoples from Europe 
built a great new country in the American 
continent. The Chinese came to California 
by a coincidence. Because of this coincidence, 
the Chinese helped to make California the 
richest state of the American Commonwealth. 

The real Californians love the Chinese. 
They always give credit where credit is due. 
They measure men by their good qualities 
rather than by the color of their skin. Thus 
through better understanding and mutual ap- 
preciation of the real good, I can visualize 
more clearly day after day. the everlasting 
friendship and cooperation of these two great 
peoples. 



Visalia Stock Saddle Co. 

Continued from Page 59 

man loves his horse and saddle, the trimmings 
of which must be the best. The Visalia Stock 
Saddle Co. could always supply them. That 
is why the fame of the firm spread all over 
the state, north and south and far over its 
boundaries to the east of the Mississippi and 
into many foreign countries. Besides manu- 
facturing a complete line of high-grade, cus- 
tom-made saddles, bridles, bits, chaps, all kinds 
of silver work as well as silver-mounted sad- 
dles, they also carry a large stock of such well 
known goods as Stetson hats, Justin boots, 
Levy Strauss overalls, etc., at their spacious 
factory and salesrooms at 21 17-2123 Market 
Street, San Francisco. 

Their specialty is custom-made riding out- 
fits for work or pleasure, and when you are in 
need of something of this nature, write to the 
Visalia Stock Saddle Co., San Francisco, for 
their illustrated catalog, showing a full line 
of the finest saddlery made in this country. 



FOR FINE 

SHOE REPAIRING 

VICTOR MASSA 

EXCELLENT WORK 

445 VALENCIA STREET 

Phone MAriiet 4179 




AMERICAN JANITOR 
SUPPLY CO. 

1781 Mission Street 
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 
FULL UNE OF EQUIPMENT 

MOPS, BROOMS AND BRUSHES 

Made U) Order. Floor Oil and Sweeping Compound. Auto Wa-sh Rack Sup- 
plies. Specializing in Stain Removing from Woodwork. 

ALL GOODS DELIVERED PROMPTLY 

Telephone HEmlock 0612 

We pay all Frelg:ht or Exi>n<«i«t ChiirKt» Evi'r.vulion« 



68 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



Through the Wisdom of God, the Chinese for 
5,000 Years Have Believed in the Efficacy 
of Herbs for Various Ailments. 



GOD SENT CHRIST ON EARTH FOR MANKIND 

"HE CAUSETH THE GRASS TO GROW FOR THE CATTLE. AND HERBS FOR THE SER- 
VICE OF MAN THAT HE MAY BRING FORTH FOOD OUT OF THE EARTH." 

ant he had been and how fooHsh it was to critize the wise. 
Since the year 1915 he has relieved thousands of sufferers- 
He has enjoyed the privilege of restoring to health numbers 
of men and women whose cases had been given up as hope- 
less. Many times, however, he has been haled into court by 
the Special Agents of the Medicos; his company's mail has 
been restricted; his herbs have been condemned as being 
without curative qualities and worthless; his method of heal- 
ing with herbs has been pronounced a fraudulent scheme by 
the authorities. 

The Postal Inspector from Washington, D. C, charged 
that Chinese Herbs made no cures and that therefore the 
sale of herbs through the mail constituted fraud. Fong Wan 
was indicted and tried (his being a test case) in the Federal 
Court, S. F., March 4. 1932. The Postal Inspector was the 
star witness, Oakland and San Francisco physicians being 
assistant witnesses. 

Under cross-examination they admitted 
the Fong Wan Herbs had cured Neuritis, 
Swollen Glands, etc., and also that many 
medicines are extracted from Chinese Herbs. 
Their testimony was so contradictory that 
they practically blackened their own eyes. 

The case cost the U. S. Government ap- 
proximately $20,000. The object was to put 
the Chinese Herbalists out of business, but 
instead, the trial ser\'ed to verify the fact 
that the Fong Wan Herbs have great reme- 
dial value. The jury returned a verdict of 
"NOT GUILTY." 

In 1925 an Anti-Herb bill was introduced 
into the California State Assembly. People 
of all classes attacked Fong Wan in all sorts 
cf ways, but he merely laughed at them, for 
he knew that those who had arrayed them- 
selves against him had done so by reason of jealousy of his 
success 01 because they were as ignorant with regard to the 
real value of herbs as he had been when he was a fooUsh 
young boy addicted to queue-pulling. He therefore sympath- 
ized with their ignorance and did not blame them for causing 
him so many hardships, especially as he was living in a for- 
eign land where the Science of Herbal Remedies was both so 
new and so vaguely understood. 

Fong Wan is happy to say that thousands of people have 
gained speedy relief by drinking his herbs and that only 
about fifteen per cent to twenty per cent of the cases have 
required more than a brief period of treatment. 



The following people suffering from Arthritis. Tuber- 
culosis. Stomach Ulcers. Diabetes, Heart Trouble, Malignant 
Growths, Prostate Gland, Paralysis, Kidney Trouble and 
Obesity have been benefited by taking the Fong Wan Herbs. 
Some of them have testified to the postal inspector from 
Washington, D. C. and others have cheerfully testified be- 
fore the Federal Jury as to their gratitude in obtaining relief 
from their ailments by the use of the Fong Wan Herbs. 

Residing in Oakland and Vicinity : 
Mrs. C. E. Grapentin. Mrs. J. Mead, Mrs. 
O. E. Foster, Mr. Robt. Bishop, Mr. William 
De Mooy, Mrs. C. A. Brown, Mr. Chas. Cush- 
man. Mrs. E. McKeever, Mr. John O'Brien, 
Mrs. L. Paxton, Mrs. F. Bailey, Mrs. N. Long, 
Mr. R. Lemieux, Mr. W. Lentz. Mr. H. Som- 
marstrom and Mr. R. Mitchell. 

Mr. John Hocker and Mr. M. F. Cain of 
Hayward; Mr. J. Wortman and Mrs. E. Ken- 
nedy of Vallejo; Mr. A. Mandercheid of Mil- 
pitas; Miss L. Niles of Pacific Grove, and Mr. 
Harold Hodge, Berkeley. 




FONQ WAlf 



WISDOM RIDICULED AND CONDEMNED 
BY IGNORANCE 

The Chinese Science of Therapeutics is based on the five 
principal formative elements of Nature. It takes a person of 
intelligence, who is educated in Chinese hterature. to learn 
the use of each of the thousands of herbs and to master the 
methods of determining the cause of human ailments. In 
order to acquaint himself with the broad knowledge of heal- 
ing handed down through the ages, he must delve into the 
volumes cf the cr.cient authors. In order to learn hew to 
properly compound herbs so that one will neither conflict nor 
counteract another, he must memorize thousands of formulas. 

While yet in his teens and before he had any idea that 
he would ever devote his life to herbal studies, Fong Wan 
ridiculed the Chinese Herbalists. As at that time Fong Wan 
had absolutely no knowledge of the properties of herbs, he 
thought that the Herbalists were foolish to make believe that 
their herbs could help sick people. He made fun of them 
and frequently pulled their queues. 

Latei . however, he began to make a serious study of the 
herbs. For ten years he devoted himself to it, learning more 
and more and continually discovering that there was much 
more to be learned. He then realized with regret how ignur- 



AII Persons who feel interested in the Herbs are invited to 
interview Fong Wan at any time without charge or obligatiun. 



TRY FONG IVAN UERliS FOR YOUR COLD. FLU. 

COIHIU. .ISTUMA AND RIIEUALITISM IH'tilXC 

Tins COLD iriNTER SEASOX 



All p4trHrmH who feel int^Test- 
fd in the lli^rlm are invited to 
Int^rvii^w FuriK Wan at any 
tim« wltliout charge <'r iil>ll- 
Kation. 

576 Tenth St., Oakland, Calif. 



FONG WAN 



Open niilly Iroin !) A. M. tu 
7 V. M. SiHuliij for out-uf- 
towii I'lttntiiN fmni !) A. M. 
Ill I'l NiMin. A liituli on IIitIm 
Kivfii frtv ut (lie ollh-e. 

I »hone Hl^ate 3767 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



69 



A Sound Body The Only Road To Health 
And Happiness 



How Do You Keep 
Going? 

What are you doing to counter- 
act the abnormal conditions in 
your body? Are you using this 
remedy or that? Something to 
whip your body into shape tem- 
porarily? Remember you can only 
whip a tired horse so far. Sooner 
or later something has to give, 
and you may have much untold 
agony and suffering. Why uo 
you persist in using old fashioned 
methods of "hit and miss" ac- 
curacy? Why not use scientific 
knowledge to trace down just ex- 
actly what is causing those acheg 
and pains? Find out why you 
are suffering with that condition, 
whatever it may be, and have it 
corrected before it is too late. 
You cannot obtain the best re- 
sults from your efforts when you 
are in a morbid state of health, 
when your vitality is low; when 
you are listless and indifferent. 
You must be able to inject in- 
itiative, enthusiasm, and force - 
fulness into your efforts. This is 
possible only when you are in a 
good physical condition. 

Health makes for happinesb, 
optimism, harmony and helpful- 
ness. The healthy man finds 
happiness in his work; his ef- 
forts are sustained by courage. 
confidence and hope, for these 
are the winning qualities which 
health provides. 

Virilit>. vital energy, dynamic 
power— these are the rewards of 
sound health; health is the creat- 
ive factor of the attractive and 
magnetic personality and is the 
basis of all the positive qualities 
of character. 

When we think it is not the 
mind alone that thinks, it is the 
whole man and the process beg- 
ging with the body. The bodily 
fiber, or quality, reaches to the 
thought. You will never get 
sound thought out of an unsound 
body- The bodily condition strikes 
through and shows itself in the 
quality of thought, 

A vast amount of the poor, il- 
logical, insipid, morbid, extrav- 
agant, pessimistic thought that 
finds its way Into books, sermons, 
and conversations has its origin 
in poor bodies and bad health. 
There can be no healthy thought, 
ncj moral fL-eling. no sound judg- 
ment, no vigorous action, except 
in connection with a sound body. 
It Is my sincere wish to bring 
home the truth, light and hope to 
Buffering humanity. My sole aim 
In the* yc-urs of my work has been 
of »ervici; to the »kk. Has been 
la relieve »ufferlng of humanity 
Hod i'hable It to enjoy health to 
lU fulk'Ht extent, aa I have rc- 
ittoTKil countk'HM Dumberti to 



Bv Dr. \V. G. Keys 

y -- 

health, and happiness. I want to 
help more of my fellow men to 
be back enjoying life once more 
as no man can really enjoy life 
unless he has a well and strong 
body. All those things are pos- 
sible, but as you all know, any- 
thing worth while is worth going 
after, so do not hesitate as "he 
who hesitates is lost," Act now! 
See Dr. W. G. Keys. X-Ray 
Chiropractor, Palmer Graduate. 
935 Market Street. Second Floor. 

If You Value 
Your Life 

Is your desire to live just an 
idle wish ? Or are you seriou-s 
about it ? Do you really value 
your life? So many people don't. 
For instance, your life — your hap- 
piness, your success, all depend 
upon your having a healthful life. 
You cannot, therefore, jeopardize 
your future by neglect any long- 
er. Stop and think for a moment, 
kind reader, can there be any 
happiness where health is impair- 
ed? Health is your priceless 
heritage, your birthright, your 
happiness, your success, your 
prosperity. All will be — must be 
^in direct proportion to the 
state of your health. Health is 
the most precious boon you in- 
herit. It is your birthright. If 
you are not perfectly healthy, 
you are not giving yourself a 
square deal for you can be well 
if you wish. Don't handicap 
yourself. Don't lose out in the 
race of life because of poor 
health. When you have health 
you cannot find anything impos- 
sible to perform: you have the 
necessary vitality to carry you 
through to your goal. Now is the 
time to act while there is yet 
hope. Do not let that inco- 
ordination go on until it has got- 
ten beyond human aid. The time 
to act is now, while there is yet 
hope. The most of the cripples 
and paralytic people of today al- 
lowed some condition to go too 
long. They keep putting off from 
day to day, saying to themselves 
that tomorrow they would go to 
some doctor and have an exam- 
niation and take treatments and 
get well, but the days become 
weeks, and the weeks years, and 
slill they were putting that call 
to the doctor off. Then suddenly 
it was too lale; they had neglect- 
ed Nature's warning signal too 
long. Then what happened per- 
manently? Are you one of those 
people who keep saying tomorrow 
I am going lo do something 
about Ihls pain, this ache, this 
Htomach gas, this constipation, 
headache, or what ever ailment 
you have? You owe it to your- 
uelf to see the CDU»e and have 



the cause eliminated. Stop taking 
something to temporarily give 
you relief. If so, you are al- 
lowing some deep seated condition 
to get too much of a start. Some 
day you will have to pay the 
price of neglect, and when thai 
day comes it will be you and 
not any one else who suffers. 
First, because you foolishly did 
not take heed when nature warn- 
ed you. Every ache or pain you 
have in your body is a danger 
signal to you Why not heed 
them now, before it is too late? 

Stand still and rot! 

Don't make any mistakes about 
it. If you aren't going up the 
hill of life, you are sliding down 
it. If you aren't making progress 
your'e making room for someone 
else who will. 

There is really no such thing 
of standing still any more than 
there is such a thing as perpet- 
ual motion. We become satisfied 
with what we've done and fool 
ourselves into believing we can 
safely rest on our days. 

Many things that are. today, 
accepted as commonplace were 
refused by many when they were 
first introduced, but still they 
are considered today as most re- 
liable. 

A few years ago a train was 
standing on the tracks in the 
Ozark Mountains and the people 
were standing looking at it, when 
one mountaineer was heard to re- 
mark, "They'll never start her." 
A few minutes later when the 
train was first going out of sight, 
he was heard to say, "They'll 
never stop her." 

Now. my friend, you cannot af- 
ford to be as stubborn about 
your body as the mountaineer 
was about the train. Perhaps 
you think you have tried every- 
thing and you are still sick and 
suffering. Do not give up hope 
until you have consulted me. I 
will make a complete X-Ray ex- 
amination of you and I will find 
out first what is the cause of 
your sickness and will tell you 
first what you must do. so that 
once more you can enjoy good 
health, and for this examination 
I will not charge you one cent. 
If your case Is one I can correct, 
I will so inform you, but should 
you need some other treatment 
or doctor's care. I will only be 
loo glad to tell you so, as I only 
want those people taking treat- 
ment from me who I know I can 
correct their conditions and have 
them well. First, as quickly as 1 
possibly can, so that they will 
be out telling their friends what 
I have buen able to uccompllsh 
for them. This Is the way I have 
built my practice; through satls- 
Iled patients, und that is the way 



I am going lo continue- 
Now, friends, lose no time in 
taking advantage of this offer. 
Perhaps you have not a moment 
to lose; soon it may be too late. 
Act at once. Your body is the 
most precious possession you 
have. Therefore, you should not 
neglect yourself any longer. While 
there is life, there is yet hope, 
but it takes more than hope to 
regain that lost health. Come in 
and we will talk it over and help 
you solve your problems of 
health. 

Dr. W. S. Keys, X-Ray Chiro- 
practor, Palmer Graduate. Sec- 
ond Floor, Kress Bldg., 935 Mar- 
ket Street, opposite Mason Street, 
San Francisco. 

Free X-Ray 
Examination 

We have been told that some 
people hesitate in asking for our 
Free X-Ray examination because 
they might feel under obligation 
to us. In this belief they are 
entirely wrong. When you get 
this free service you are doing us 
a favor. 

Now, let us explain first what 
we mean by this. Every time 
we make an examination, we take 
great pain to explain our Improv- 
ed Method. Why? Because our 
method does not hurt. 

What may be expected in the 
way of immediate improvement 
and how long it will take to get 
well, after getting this report. 
You may decide to postpone tak- 
ing our treatment, or we may 
never see you again. Be that as 
it may. We know you will leave 
our office feeling kindly toward 
us and that you will spread the 
news among your friends, some 
of whom may be in need of our 
services. 

And there is another reason 
why we offer you this free serv- 
ice. Until we have made a thor- 
ough examination, we have no 
way of knowing that we would 
accept your case. We find it 
necessary to refuse a great many 
cases, due to the fact that our 
method of examination reveals 
to us that they are past the point 
of correction. 

We trust that we have made 
plain lo you our reason for offer- 
ing free consultation, and why 
you must not feel that your ac- 
ceptance of this free service will 
obligate you in any way. 

Make appointment with Dr. W. 
S, Keys. 935 Market Street. Tele- 
phone KEainy B4-10 



Ste fitU-pagt ativtrtisement 
uf Dr. iV. G. Krys on cover 
ijf lUtliforma Uhloriail iCtH- 

tlOII. 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



Hydroelectric Developement of the Mokelumne River Base 




HE development of liyd reelect ricity 
on the Mokelumne River follows 
Pacific Gas and Electric Company's 
long established policy of maintain- 
ing a sufficient reser\'e to meet ad- 
vancing needs of Northern and Central Cali- 
fornia communities for light, heat and power. 
While the Company owns water rights 
for power development on other Sierra 
streams, the Mokelumne River admirably 
meets the three requisite factors involved iii 
the selection of a stream for water power. 
These are : 

(1) AvaUability of water on the stream 
watershed ; 

(2) Reasonable cost of construction: 

(3) Relationship of developed plants to the 
system load, 

A program of construction was undertaken 
in 1928. calling for the expenditure of $■^0,- 
000,000 and the installation in the Mokelumne 
River canyon of four plants with an aggre- 
gate capacity of 228,000 horsepower. The first 
two plants to go into operation were Salt 
Springs and Tiger Creek power houses. These 
plants, with a total capacity of 95.000 horse- 
power, were put on the line in July. 1931. In- 
stallation of West Point power house, develop- 
ment of Bear River, and reconstruction of the 
existing Electra plant, are yet to be carried out 
before the entire project is complete. This 
construction has given employment to a dady 
average of more than one thousand men, and 
approximately $25.000.000 has been spent for 
labor, material and supplies. 

Before hydroelectricity from Salt River and 
Tiger Creek power houses could be made 
available for distribution, it was necessary to 
construct a transmission line 110 miles long. 
This line, operating at 220.000 volts, ends at 
Newark substation in Alameda County. This 
station was reconstructed at a cost of $2,000.- 
000 to receive the Mokelumne River power. 
The enlargement of Newark substation has 
given it the distniction of being one of the 
world's largest pools of eelctric power. It is 
now Pacific Gas and Electric Company's prin- 
cipal power distributing center and is connect- 
ed, directly or indirectly, with all company 
generating plants, which have a total output 
of more than a million and a half horsepower. 

Salt Springs Dam 

Cost - $7.000,000 

Design Rock fill 

Height 330 feet 

Length of Crest 1330 feet 

ThtcknesB at Baae 900 feet 

Thickness at Crest 15 feet 

Cubic Content .3,000,000 yds. granite 
Reservoir Capacity 135,000 aere ft. 

Salt Springs Dam is located about 50 miles 
ca»t of the city of Jackson, Amador County. 
The dividing line of Calaveras and Amador 
counties runs directly through its center. The 
laruöt dam of its type in the world, being oiie- 
ihird larger than the famous Dix River Dam 
in Kentucky, it has api)roxiinately the same 
cubic content u the Great PyranuM in Egypt 



built by Cheops 6.000 years ago. But where 
it took 100,000 of Cheops' subjects 20 years 
to construct the Great Pyramid, it has taken 
P. G. and E. engineers, using modern machin- 
ery, three years to build Salt Springs Dam. 

The upstream face of the dam is composed 
of a 15-foot wall of derrick-placed rock. Cov- 
ering this layer of rock is a reinforced con- 
crete "skin." or water-tight facing, varying 
from a thickness of three feet at the base to 
12 inches at the crest. 

This reinforced concrete skin and the dam 
are joined to the river bottom and the canyon 
walls by means of a cutoff wall which is seal- 
ed to bed rock by cement grout injected un- 
der pressure around the dam to prevent leak- 
age. 

Granite for Salt Springs Dam was quarried 
from adjacent cliffs on both sides of Mokel- 
umne Canyon. Huge sections were blasted 
down by dynamite. The greatest blast was 
touched off in November, 1929, when 116,250 
pounds of dynamite shattered a section of cliff 
1000 feet long, 160 feet high and 45 feet 
thick, providing 231,000 cubic yards of stone 
for the dam. 

Salt Springs Power House 
The first power house constructed was at 
Salt Springs Dam itself. This is a low head 
plant utilizing the water directly from Salt 
Springs reservoir and developing 15,000 horse- 
power. The water wheels and generators are 
housed in a reinforced concrete building^ 110 
feet long. 54 feet high and 68 feet in width. 
Sufficient space is provided in Salt Springs 
power house for the installation of a generat- 
ing unit to be used by the development of Bear 
River. This river one of the principal tribu- 
taries of the Mokelumne, runs about three 
miles north of Salt Springs Dam. A reservoir 
to conserve its waters is to be built at an eleva- 
tion 2,000 feet higher. From this reservoir 
tunnels and penstock will drop the waters to 
Salt Springs power house, increasing this 
plant's capacity 33,000 horsepower. 

Tiger Creek Power Development 
This is one of the major power installations 
of the entire project, having a capacity of 80.- 
000 horsepower. Tiger Creek is one of the 
largest of numerous creeks emptying their 
waters into the Mokelumne River. It forms 
a confluence with the main stream about 22 
miles below Salt Springs D.im. 

After the water has passed through Salt 
Springs power house, it is conveyed for a dis- 
tance of 22 miles by a flow conduit composed 
of tunnels, inverted siphons and reinforced 
iUime 14 feet wide by 7 feet deep to the Tiger 
Creek forebay located on a ridge overlooking 
the junction of Tiger Creek and the Mokel- 
umne River. Prom this forebay the water is 
dropped 1.220 feet tlirough a penstock to tlic 
Tiger Cieck power house. 

An interesting feature uf the Salt Springs- 
Tiger Creek conduit is the fact that it picks 
up the water from iiuiny »mall streams such 
as Panther Creek Hear Creek, Cold Creek and 



Beaver Creek, all of these streams contributing 
their run-off for use in Tiger Creek power 
house. 

H'eil Point Pmuer Development 
Having added its quota of power at Tiger 
Creek power house, the water is conveyed to 
an aftcrbay constructed about a mile below 
the Tiger Creek plant. From this after-bay, 
it enters a canal and flows down stream five 
miles, to be dropped 285 feet into a power 
house which Is to be constructed near West 
Point bridge. This power house will produce 
an additional 20.000 horsepower. This will 
be the third of the new power houses in the 
Mokelumne system. 

Electra Power House 
This is the first power house built in the 
Sierra Nevada Mountains ever to deliver 
hydroelectricity into the city of San Francisco, 
and is one of the pioneer hydroelectric develop- 
ments in California. Electra was built as a 
small plant primarily, to provide power for 
mining purposes near Jackson. Subesequcntly 
its capacity was raised to its present rating of 
27,000 horsepower, and power transmitted to 
San Francisco in 1902. Since that year. Electra 
has been one of the important contributors to 
the light, heat and power supply of the San 
Francisco Bay region. 

The water, after leaving West Point power 
house, is conveyed by means of a canal 13 miles 
long down stream to Lake Tabeaud, the pres- 
ent forebay for Electra. The entire Electra 
plant will be reconstructed and its capacity 
raised to 80,000 horsepower. 

Electra marks the end of the Company's 
chain of power plants on the Mokelumne. At 
this point the water is returned to the main 
stream to be utilized by irrigation districts and 
domestic water supply systems. The comple- 
tion of the company's hydroelectric project 
will mark the Mokelumne River as one of the 
best developed streams In California, since all 
the waters of the stream's water-shed will have 
been placed to beneficial use. 



Bud Weiser's Haberdashery 

Mr. J. H. Weiser, uho formerly operated 
exclusive men's shops in the Northwest during 
the past twelve years, has this new and artis- 
tically decorated mens' and boys' shop at 2172 
Chestnut Street, where he trades under the 
name of "Bud Weiser's Haberdashery." The 
store has a large frontage on Chestnut Street, 
with attractive windows and a recessed mod- 
ernistic entrance. The interior is finished with 
the modern oak (Jrand Rapids fixtures, and is 
a niudern daylight store. 

In addition to carrying a complete line of 
nationally known men's furnishings, the store 
has a coniidete line of little boj-s' and juven- 
iles' apparell. 

Mr. Weiser is quite active in the district. 
He is ready at «H timrs to cooperate in the 
welfare of the Marina, and is the Secretary of 
the Marina McrchaiUs" .'X^sociatiun. 



CALIFORNIA JOURNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



71 



HISTORICAL NOTES ON NEVADA COUNTY 



HERE IS ail uiiiii-rciirrent of old 
romance of the '49er still in the 
atmosphere of Nevada County. 
The lure of gold, the battles of 
^ love, a glamorous past. 
Rough and Ready, settled by the Rough & 
Ready Company in the fall of 1S49. grew so 
fast in population that in 1850 there were 
1000 votes cast. A fire swept through the 
town in 1853 and burned the entire business 
section, in ISSS-Sö another fire swept through 
the towji and burned and completely destroyed 
300 substantial homes. There was an influx 
of Baltimorcans, Kcntuckians, and Georgians 
in this community who were very put out 
when California was admitted as a free state. 
A convention assembled in front of the old 
hotel, which still stands, and named a com- 
mittee to draw up a resolution of Independ- 
ence, which was adopted, thus creating the 
great Republic of Rough and Ready. Little 
was heard of the new nation born a decade be- 
fore the Civil War until July 17. 1865, when 
the sheriff of Nevada County rode into Rough 
and Ready to find five hundred men sworn to 
fight the rebellion all over again. Scouts were 
posted on the road and Nevada County took 
to arms with the instructions to report the 
minute the invading army was sighted. Dawn 
brought a form from the vicinity of Rough 
and Ready with a plentiful supply of alcohol. 
Reports soon reached town that Rough and 
Ready as well as the Nevada County Guards 
were in an alcoholic condition. Thus ended 
the great Independent Rough and Ready. 

At the corner of two residence streets stands 
a vine-covered cottage that was once the home 



of Lola Montez. Two doors away stands the 
old dwelling that was once the home of Lotta 
Crabtree, a boarding hou^e for miners and con- 
ducted by her mother, Lola Montez possess- 
ed remarkable charm and an unusual intelli- 
gence which gave her a powerful influence 
over men in high places. Her last conquest be- 
fore coming to California had been the com- 
plete captivation of King Louis of Bavaria, 
who made her a countess. She was described 
as "a welcome gift to the reporters of the 
period from 1840 to 1860." It was in her 
home that Lotta Crabtree. then a child of six, 
laid the foundation for a stage career, also be- 
came internationally known, though in a dif- 
ferent way. Hers was the triumph of a singer. 
A book about Lola was written by a Califor- 
tu'a woman by the name of Constance Rourke 
uf Palo Alto, called the "Troupers of the Gold 
Coast." 

A convention was held in Grass Valley in 
the year '51-'52 when a resolution was passed 
to go and sack San Francisco for food — force 
to be used if necessary. 

A miner, Cieorge McKnight, washing gravel 
on Wolff Creek, was out looking for his cow 
when he stubbed his toe on a piece of rock; in 
taking the rock up and examining it he foiuid 
it full of gold. This was the discovery of one 
of the richest mineral veins ever opened and 
the first discovery of quartz gold in California, 
This led directly to deep mining in Californi.-i 
and that focused the eyes of the world on 
(nass Valley, and $35,000.000 has been taken 
out of that mine since George Mcknight's dis- 
covery. This discovery played a very import- 
ant part in the history of this state. 



California's Oldest 
National Forest Celebrates 
Fortieth Anniversary 

California's first national forest was created 
by President Benjamin Harrison on December 
20^ ] «92,— forty years ago. His proclamation 
set aMde 555.000 acres in Los Angeles County 
to be kno«n as the San (jabriel Timbcrlaiid 
Reserve under authority granted by the Act 
of March 3, 1891. This area was regarded as 
valuable for watershed protection by the U. S. 
(Geological Survey of the Department of the 
Interior and by the first California State For- 
estry Commission appointed by Governor 
George Stoneman in 1885, 

From 1892 until 1897 it remained "re- 
served" from all forms of use except recrea- 
tion It was then placed under the administra- 
tion of the (k-neral Land (office of the De- 
partment of the Interior, a forest supervisor 
nU..d in charge with headquarters m Los An 
..-les and a force of short term rangers ap- 
pointed for fire protection. In 1908 it was con- 
«ilidated with the old San Bernardino Nn- 
.ional Forest under the name of the Angeles 
In l'*25 the« two areas were again separated 
jnd .idminibtered a» distinct units.. 



Today the Angeles National Forest with its 
area of 643.836 acres is more intensively used 
for recreation than any other national forest 
in the United States, and two million persons 
obtain 80 per cent of their water supply from 
the streams rising from its watersheds. Within 
its boundaries over one million persons annual- 
ly find recreation in the 153 camp grounds im- 
proved by the Forest Service in cooperation 
with the Automobile Club of Southern Cali- 
fornia and Los Angeles County, and in the 
county |iarks at Big Pines and Crystal Lake. 



Suffer No Longer 

I you have been suftVring with rheumatism 
you should not hesitate one minute to get in 
touch «ith ANTI-URIC CO., 32 Front 
Street, San Francisco, or go to any reliable 
drug store and ask for ANTI-UKIC. a rem- 
edy that has been tested and proven to he one 
of the most remarkable and certainly (he most 
reliable one on the market today. AN Ti- 
li RIC will bring permanent relief to the suf- 
ferer where other remedies hav fiuled utterly. 
It purifies and cures. It brings health and 
happiness. Try it! 



One of the outstanding tragic cases was that 
of Michael Brennan which has gained a prom- 
inent place in the list of historic state tragedies. 
He was a young, educated and cultured man, 
being sent to Grass Valley from New York 
with his wife, t\\'t) children and a maid, in 
the interests of his friends who owned a gold 
mine in this district. Successfully operating 
the mine, he was soon able to send back remit- 
tances — then the pay sheet was lost, more 
funds were needed that the New Yorkers were 
unwilling to put up. They told Brennan they 
uxrc through. He borrowed until he could 
borrow no more ; despondent, he quit. The 
disgrace and humiliation was more than he 
could bear. One Sunday, seeing no signs of 
life around the Brennan home, neighbors 
sought the reason and found Breiman had end- 
ed the lives of his entire family and himself. 
The ledge that Brennan was trying to locate 
was found by others a few feet from where he 
abandoned the work. The high-grade ore kept 
men at work for years. A well-kept grave in 
the local cemeterj' bears mute evidence of this 
tragedy. 

Here was established the first long distance 
telephone line in the world. Part of it is still 
in use. This started at French Corral via 
Corral, Sweetland, San Juan, Cherokee, North 
Columbia, Mallicoff, North Bloomfield. 
Bloody Run, Moore's Flat, Eureka, Milton. 
Bowman, Veavcr Lake to Fauchere. 

The first quartz mining laws of the state 
were written here at very informal meetings, 
later to be accepted by the courts. 

Hydraulic mining was invented near Nevada 
City. 



Miss Elaine's Gymnastic 
Course 

Nothing is more important in keeping your 
mind and body fit for its daily task than regu- 
lar and systematic exercise. To have every 
fiber of your body throb with health, energy 
and vital force should be the aim of every one 
of us. This will not only be possible but quite 
easy and a pleasure if you join one of Miss 
Elaine's classes of physical culture for ladies, 
conducted twice a week in the evenings, fol- 
lowed by tap and acrobatic dancing after every 
lesson. Because the classes consist of a limited 
number of pupils it is possible to give individ- 
ual attention to each pupil. Miss Elaine has 
a wide experience in her profession, having 
been connected with some of the most prom- 
innit institutes of the country. Her thorough 
knowledge ot the art of dancing, as well is 
the individual adaptability of her pupils for a 
p;irticular style of dancing, enable her to ac- 
idinplish wonders where others would fail. 
The stutiiu is established iit J357 Chestnut 
Street; telephone, W.Miiut 3J0S. 



72 



CALIFORNIA TOTTRNAL HISTORICAL ANNUAL 



George L. Suhr 



Nelson Eckart 



Peace Is More Deadly Than War! 



There is harly any other line of 
business or profession requiring 
more tact and consideration than 
that of an undertaker or funeral 
director. This is a profession that 
knows little else but sorrow and 
it is his province to lighten the bur- 
den of sorrow that has befallen 
the family who are mourning the 
loss of one near and dear to them. 
It is up to him to arrange the last 
rites in a manner to minimize the 
burden of worries and sorrow and 
to arrange the funeral ceremonies 
in a manner befitting and deserv- 
ing of the departed one. It takes 
a man of extraordinary ability to 
do all this, and we dare say very 
few men possess these rare quali- 
fications. 

But some do, and among these 
few Mr. George L. Suhr takes 
first place. Mr. Suhr comes from 
an old well-known family that has 
built up a reputation as pioneers 
in the undertaking business. His 
father, H. F. Suhr. founded the 
business many years ago and train- 
ed his son George to follow in his 
footsteps of reliability, considera- 
tion and accommodation. This 
George L. Suhr has done faithful- 
ly during all the years that he has 
been in business for himself under 
the firm name of Suhr & Wicboldt. 
Mr. Wicboldt being associated 
with him for a few years until 
George took over the entire busi- 
ness and personal management of 
his firm. His fine qualities as a 
funeral director and his sympa- 
thetic way of handling all the 
work connected with the business 
a-s well as his reasonable charges 
have increased his circle of friends 
to such an extent that he at present 
is conducting more funerals than 
any other undertaking establish- 
ment. 

George L. Suhr is a member of 
the Shrine. Druids, Toresters. 
South of Market Boys. Native 
Sons, Red Men. Hermann Sons 
and various other organizations 
and is well liked wherever he goes. 



When former Mayor Rolph ap- 
pointed Nelson Eckart as manager 
of the San Francisco Water De- 
partment some years ago, not one 
«ord of dissent was heard. Eck- 
art knew the old Spring Valley 
Distributing System Uke a book, 
and what is more he also kne\\' 
every inch of our extensive Hetch 
Hetchy System, nearing its com- 
pletion to pour its riches into the 
storage lakes of the old Spring 
Valley system. He had been with 
the engineer's office for good many 
years and studied the needs of the 
city in order to be able to develop 
it to its present magnitude. Since 
Nelson Eckart has taken charge of 
the S. F. Water Department it 
has proven a great financial suc- 
cess, thereby reducing the burden 
of the taxpayers to no small extent. 



German-American 

Savings Bank 

{Fortsetzung von Seite 15) 

lichen California. Seine in deut 
scher Sprache erscheinende Zei- 
tung int ein konservatives und ver- 
läßliche« Blatt, da* sich jrder/xit 
für die besten Interes.-ien m-ukn 
Ixwr und de« Deutschanierikam-r 
lumt im allBcmcinen cintctzl. 



The Palais Royal Cafe 
2656 Great Highway 

If you want to give your visi- 
ing friends a real treat, take 
them out to the Palais Royal 
cafe on the Great Highway, near 
Fleishhacker Pool. It is one of 
the show places of the town— 
the one place where you can rest 
assured that cuisine and service 
combine to make your visit a 
most pleasant one. Mr. Ulisse 
Caiati, owner of Palais Royal 
Cafe, is no newcomer in the field 
of epicurean service, having been 
established a good many years 
in business for himself besides 
having managed a number of 
well known establishments in San 
Francisco. The Palais Royal Cafe 
has a total seating capacity of 
500 persons with all the modern 
conveniences enjoyed in up-to- 
date establishments. There is no 
couvert charge at any time, and 
the foods and refreshments serv- 
ed vie with those in any other 
establishment. Arrangements can 
be made at any time for private 
dinner parties, for clubs, ban- 
quets, card parties and anniver- 
saries. Phone MOntruse 10002 
for further infurmalion. or still 
better, pay a visit to the Palais 
Royal when out on the Great 
Highway 

Carl I-. Schlocssmiuin k.un zu- 
erst auf den Gedanken, eine strikt 
.leulschanierikanischc Hank in Los 
Angeles zu i-tahlieren, ein Unter- 
fangen, das ihm /.weifellos mit 
dem besten und crspriesslichsteii 
Erfolge «elunnen ist. Das von 
ihm jet/.t geleitete Finanziiistitut 
verdient die Heachtung und das 
Vertrauen eines jeden, der sich fiir 
eine konservative Bank mit erster 
Sicherheit und proure^ivfii 

(iriiiidsaf/cii iiiteressierl. 



War is a fearful waste of hu- 
man life, of course, yet this year 
in peace time, more than 800.000 
people will die needlessly. Will 
you be one of them? WUl you be 
alive next year at this time? 

Soldiers are subjected to care- 
ful physical examinations! their 
health is protected in every pos- 
sible way. Are you giving your 
body the careful attention that is 
given to soldiers in war time? 
The chances are that you are not. 
You may be, therefore, one of the 
800,000. 

It is a fact that two persons 
out of every three are suffering 
from some sort of chronic trouble. 
Many do not realize there is any- 
thing particular wrong with them 
until they become seriously ill- 
Then it may be too late. 

We have been successful in dis- 
covering and correcting deep- 
seated chronic conditions. We 
simnly co-operate with Nature. 
We have helped thousands to joy- 
ous health. Perhaps we can help 
you too. 

Come in to see us. don't take 
a chance of being one of the 
800.000 people who die needlessly 
this year. 

One in twenty-five. 
This year in the United States 
one person in every 25 will die of 
kidney trouble. Many more will 
be victims of rheumatic trouble, 
which usually goes along with 



kidney derangement. 

Much of this suffering and 
death could be avoided if people 
would take proper care of them- 
selves, 

If you have aches and pains in 
the small of your back, don't ne- 
glect them. They are warnings 
of possible serious trouble. 

If you have rheumatic twinges 
at times, you are running a grave 
risk of neglecting them further; 
you are suffering needlessly. 

Our treatment has done won- 
ders in relieving kidney trouble 
and rheumatic conditions. Ours 
is a common sense, natural health 
method that co-operates with Na- 
ture. 

You are cordially invited to 
come and see us. We wUl be 
glad to give you a complete an- 
alysis, X-Ray examination of your 
physical condition without charge 
or obligation. 

If you are sick and don't know 
the source of your trouble, and 
if you are interested in knowing 
the condition of your body, come 
to our office and obtain a com- 
plete report on your trouble. 

It is imporUnt that you ar- 
range your appointment early, 
either by telephone or letter, as 
only a limited number of people 
can be examined daily. 

Dr. W. G- Keys, X-Ray Chiro- 
practor, 935 Market Street, opp. 
Mason Street . 



Telephone Mission 3614 



George L. Suhr 

SUHR 



AND 



WIEBODT 

FUNERAL DIRECTORS 
and EMBALMERS 



1465-1473 V-aleiiciii Street 

Between 25th and liWli 

San Francisco 



IF YOU ARE SICK » DON'T GIVE UP! 

Don t permit your condition to become worse by neglect. Take advantage of our Fi-ee 
Ä-Kay exammation offer and learn all the facts about your condition, with all guesswork 
omitted. By presenting this ad you will receive without any obligation, our compre- 

FREE X-RAY EXAMINATION, ANALYSIS AND REPORT 

together with laboratory research work i-elative to your individual case. There is nothing 
in the least embarrassing about either our examinations or our system of administering 
Chiropractic. ^ 



WE NEVER GUESS 

Before t.ne can reaaonably expect to regain lost 
health, it Is first ol all important to know Just 
what in wroiiK and to have all doubl eliminated 
Trom the dtngnogls. Pain may arise in iiny part 
of the body, while the cauae may he found for 
away tvcim the seat of Ihe dtacomd.rt. For that 
reason the X-Ray . , . combined with Urinalysis. 
blood pressure, and labomiory tests aa your In- 
dividual case may indicate . . . tlii» we do In 
order that all guesswork may he positively elim- 
inated. 

CKp stohy 

üfifSimNOGRAPH 



TELLS 




TMll 

NtRVE 
MEANS 

DISEASB 



OUR REPUTATION 
WORTH MORE THAN 
YOUR DOLLARS 

If we feel that we cannot benefll you, we will 
honestly so advise yuu. We want every Keys 
patient to be a loyal and satlsiled one. Much of 
our practice. In fact the preater part of it, is 
referred, and such could only be possible where 
treatment act'orded and advice given is conscien- 
tiously offered . . . and the desired beneficial 
resulla achieved. 

THERE IS NO CHARGE 

FOR .\-RAY EXAMINATION. 

11 this advertisement is presented. 

NO obllgatUin whatever. Our examination will 
show the exact cause of your sickness or trouble. 
COME AND SEE YOUR CONDITION WITH 
YOUR OWN EYES. This Is your opportunity lo 
be examined in one of the llnest and best equip- 
ped Chiropractic offices In the world by doctors 
who are conducting one of the largest private 
practices on the Pacific Coast. This la not a 
clinic and we do not employ students, but every 
doctor is a competent Palmer Graduate Chiropractor 
who ha^ had success In private practice. 

CHIROPRACTIC CAN AND WILL. GET YOU 
WELL. This fact is being proven every day in our 
offlceB by results obtained on all chronic ailments. 
Such ci.ndlllons as; Nervousness, Lumbago, Stom- 
ach Trouble, Asthma, Headaches. High Blood Pres- 
sure. Constipation, Neuralgia, Rheumalism. Paraly- 
sis, Kidney Disorders, Heart Trouble, Neuritis. 
Backai:h«H, Catarrh, Tiredness, and miiny others 
respond quickly and painlessly to Palmer X-Ray 
Chlropracili , Your body ut ">ne time functioned 
nurmiilly and if given a chance will ili> so again 




Dr. W. G. Keys 

X.RAY CHIRPRACTOR, PALMER GRADUATE 

We Will Find the Cause of Yoor Trouble 




THOUSANDS HAVE BENEFITED 

from the advice we have conacieniiously given them. 
and from treatments or readjustments prescribed 
for them in our ofTlcos. As one of the largest 
Chiropractic organi/iitions in the West (our doctors 
being all Palmer Graduates) with ofllcea In several 
Cities In Northern California ... all cases are care- 
fully recorded, and all records checked and com- 
pared by a most extensive and comprehensive 
ayslem, we are In a position to give advice, based 
upon tact*, which would not be possible for a 
single practitioner in ordinary practice. 



NOGRAPH 



ove? 



Jmpr 

^(fllROPRACTI 



LET US EXPLAIN 

We Hie frcqueiilly asked how we can give our 
comprehensive Examination free. An examination 
that many would charge from SUS lo J50 tor. We 
are asked where the "catch" lies. There is none. 
You positively need not take a single treatment, 
not spend a single cent unless you are absolutely 
convinced that we can benefit you. You will be 
treated Just as courteously as though you come In 
and laid a hundred dollars before us. Only our 
huge practice makes this possible. 
It is our regular system of doing business and we 
do not want you in feel the least embarrassment 
or hesitancy in asking us tor it. 
Bear In mind also, that It is wise to have yourself 
checked over at least annually. Make It a habit. 
Don't wait until illness or suffering overtakes you. 
The wise person today. Is he or she who prevents 
such troubles . . . and the old adai;e "An ounce of 
prevention is worth a pound of cure" was never 
more appropriate. 

No mutter what you suffer with . . . whether your 
trouble be chronic or Incipient ... no matter what 
treatments you have had ... no matter how many 
times you have been tuld your case Is hopeless, dont 
give up but take advantage of our free X-Ray ex- 
amination offer at once and learn all the facts about 
yourself, 

We would no mure think of treating a patient 
without first X-Raying to locate the cause of the 
trouble than a carpenter would think of building a 
house without a rule. If you are not well and wish 
to Icurii Ihe real facta of your case, take advantafio 
of our Free X-Ray offer. We lakp an X-Ray pic- 
ture of your spine, give you a report on your cou- 
dltli.ii and yoii uro under no obllgntlun III any way- 



KEYS X-RAY Chiropractors 



PALMER G R A D U A T E S 

WS5 Market Strin-t, Kn-wt. BiilldliiR, Suite 200-208, Opiuislti- TiirU mill Ma.soii. I'lioiii- KKiiriij «41«. 
Hours: 10 a. m. to 1 p. m.; 2 to 5 p.m,; 7 to 8 p. m. Saturday Hours: 10 a. m, to 1 p. m anil a to 13 p. m 
SuiKjays by Appotntment. 



San Prancisco, Cal. 



200,000 SHARES 

Rainier Brewing Company, Inc. 

(A California Corporation) 

Class A Participating Common Stock 
Non-Cumulative - Par Value $10 

Fully Paid and Non-Assessable Not Subject to Call 

Class A Comtnoti Stoik is PREl-'ERRED >s to /ISSEl^S in lite event of Hquulalian r,r 

dissolution; and as to DWIDESDS up to 6%, and iheraifter participates uitli the 

Class B shares on a share for share basis in any further dividends declared in any year. 



CAPITALIZATION 



Common Class A (Par Value $10) 
Common Class B (No Par Value) 



Authorized 

250,000 sh 
400,000 sh 



Outstanding 

(On completion of this 

tinancingl 

250.000 shs. 
400,000 shs. 



BUSINESS AND PROPERTY: Rainier Brewing Company, Inc., which ha5 acquired the plant; and business of the Rainier Brewing 
Company, and Pacific Products, Inc., is the largest manufacturer of cereal beverages in the West. The plants and business so 
acquired have a long and satisfactory earning record and proven management. 

The Rainier Brewing Company, Inc., is the outgrowth of a business established in Seattle in the early 70's, which by 1914 had 
grown into a $3,000,000 corporation, earning in excess of $650,000 a year. 

The present Rainier Brewery, which is located at )55Q Bryant Street, San Francisco, is one of the few large breweries in the 
United States that has been kept in continuous operation since prohibition. The plant is scientifically designed, and is the only 
brewery of Class A construction on the Pacific Coast, 

CAPACITY: The present brewing capacity of the San Francisco plant is 350,000 barrels per annum, equal to 4,637.500 cases of 
two-do?en I l-ounce botH-le each. V^Ith a very small expenditure, the brewing capacity can be increased, if need be. to 450,000 
barrels per annum, equal to 5,962,500 cases. 

The Company Is able, within 24 hours after the modification or repeal of the prohibition law, to market real beer due to the 
fact that in manufacturing "near beer" In the San Francisco plani, a beer of pre-prohibltlon alcoholic content is first manufactur- 
ed and then de-alcoholiied. under Government supervision, to an alcoholic content permissable under the law. There is, there- 
fore, a large stock of real beer on hand at all times. The Company plans, upon the return of real beer, in addition to developing 
its large domestic trade, to resume its export business, which constjtuted an important share of Its volume prior to 1920 (prohibi- 
tion.) 

SALES INCREASE: Since the Volstead Act became a law, the San Francisco plant has been operated at about 1 354- of its cereal 
beverage capacity. Adding new products from 1925 to 1931, the Company has effected a steady growth in business. Sales in- 
creased from $ 1 ,045,487 in 1 925 to $ 1 ,778, 1 07 in 1931. During this period more than $650,000 was spent in advertising its various 
products. 

MANAGEMENT: The ability of the management is attested by its remarkable earnings record, prior to the advent of prohibition: 
also by the manner In which it has adapted Itself to changed conditions. Despite the handicap of operating a large plant at less 
than I3';r of capacity. It has been able to show satisfactory earnings and to provide out of income large sums for advertising its 
brands and keeping them before the public In anticipation of the return of real beer. 

OUTLOOK: If permitted to manufacture real beer, it is anticipated that the Company should earn at least $650,000 a year. This 
estimate is based on what the properties earned for a period of approximately five years immediately preceding prohibition, the 
anticipated Increase In sales and lower manufacturing costs. It gives no recognition, however, to increase in plant capacity, or to 
the gain In population on the Pacific Coast since 1920. 

PURPOSE OF ISSUE: Proceeds, derived from the sale of this stock, after payment of the present total bonded and current Indebted- 
ness of $1,070,157.54, will provide a balance of approximately $730,000 for working capital and also capital for extensions and 
improvements that may be necessary to meet increased consumptive requirements If the sale of real beer is leqölized. 

It is the intention to make application to list this stock on th^ San Francisco Stock Exchange. 



Price $10 Per Sh 



are 



Subjetl lo Pi- 



RAINIER BREWING COMPANY, INC 

1550 BRYANT STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

A more detailed clr-.ulm, l.j<,jeth«f wilh imanLial itutcrnent, (^röpciied by lld'Amu Sr Sill- i. ..ivj'lohle at the offices of 

MARTIN JUDGE, JR. & CO. ALANSON BROS. & CO. 

t Montgomery Street Kohl Building 

Vv'ho have been authorized to receive subscriptions to the stock